Transition to adolescence is a vital process in one’s life. A
phase where one hits puberty. A step where one starts to think logically,
abstractly and idealistically. A chapter where one’s start to work at refining
sense of self. A period where one starts to look at another people’s perspective.
Adolescence is an integral part in everyone’s life. I am going to explicate the
information and assessment done on the client such at the client’s puberty
stage, client’s cognitive and
psychosocial development, her developmental tasks together with her mental,
nutritional and social assessment that comes with the advisory guidance. Nurul
Aisyah; our client’s name. We meet her on the 21st November 2017.
first menarche was February 2014; age 12. But before she hit her first menarche,
she realizes that her body changes start to spike at the age of 11. During the
interview, she is not shy to share about the developmental of her body. She
mentioned that at the age of 11, she starts to gain weight of more than 3kg, her
height starts to spurt, breast starts to grow plus small thin hairs over her
armpit and genital area.
Stage of Piaget’s theory
At the age
of 15 years old, Aisyah falls under the Formal Operational Stage of Piaget’s
theory. This theory explained at that at this age, one should be able think more
abstractly, able to think what is possible and able to solve problems systematically.
During the interview, we realize that client is able to
think dependable and accurately as she did not turn to ask her mum when we asked
her series of questions. Client is also able to think creatively, use abstract
reasoning, and imagine the outcome of particular actions, we did give her a
list of inappropriate behaviours for her to explain the consequences for each behaviour.
Versus Role Confusion of Erikson’s theory
As her intellectual
capabilities starts to broaden, it provides advanced and innovative thinking
about values and problems, it also charters adolescence to think about
themselves in many new dubious ways. Adolescents
become much more able to imagine their possible selves-the various identities that
they may adopt (Markus,
H., & Nurius, P. 1986)
independent, and able to define her future. She knows what she wants to be in
the future. During the interview she mentioned that after taking her GCE 0-LEVELS,
she planned to go to Termasek Polytechnic to pursue a course that she likes, Diploma in Psychology Studies
as she wants to understand how people think, behave, communicate and
interact with each other. Aisyah
mentioned that she is still trying to define who she really is. Although she
has plan for her future studies, she fears of the uncertainties that may occur
but she is able to explain the consequences that may follow the decisions she
take. This is very concerning because failure to establish a sense of identity
may lead to role confusion.
Lawrence Kohlberg’s stages of moral
development (Post-conventional morality)
The theory is known with the increase of
realization that one sovereign entities from society, and that one’s own
perspective may take ascendancy over society’s view; individuals can choose to
disobey rules with their own principles and beliefs.
One becomes aware
that while rules exist for the good of the greatest number, there are where it
will collide with the interest of individuals. (Kohlberg, 1976 )
People at this
stage have fully developed their own set of moral guidelines which may or may accustomed
the law. (Kohlberg, 1976 )
Aisyah is under the Post-conventional morality, stage 5 and 6. She look at the covolution of
what makes a good society. During the interview, Aisyah is able to differentiate
what is right and what is wrong. She can also cultivate in viewing the opinions,
rights, and values. She is also able to put herself in someone else’s shoe
and view other people perspective.
Adolescents development tasks Robert J. Havighurst
Development is the process of growth and modification that
people go through in life.
Robert J. Havighurst was a psychologist in the 20th
century who developed a theory on how people develop through life.
Aisyah has learnt to get along with friends of both sexes. She is able to accept her physical body and keeping it healthy. She is capable in preparing for a job or career. She
has succeed in acquiring a set of values to guide her behavior. She is becoming
socially responsible; with who she make friends with. At the same time she is also learning to make decisions.
During the interview, we found out
that there are more than one scar on the hand area. We
then proceed to ask her what drives her to do such. She explained was due to
peer and family pressure for her to do well in her studies. She tried to
strangle herself. She stopped doing such after being counselled by school
counselling where her parents are called down as well.
There are plenty of suicide support
groups that we can get in Singapore, one of the common prevention group is
called SOS (Samaritans of Singapore). It is a non-profit organisation which
provides 24 hours emotional support to people who have difficulties coping with
crisis and who is thinking of suicide. (SOS (Samaritans of Singapore), n.d.)
Aisyah states that when she is
stress, she will start to binge eating all the junk food that is made available
around the neighbourhood. That is concerning because her body mass index may
She may seek help over at Health
Promotion Board (HPB) committed in promoting healthy living in Singapore or try
to cut down the junk food on her own and find for other alternative to relive
her stress. (health promotion board, 2001 ).
Substance abuse assessment
During the interview, it was made
known that Aisyah has took Marijuana before. Her actions are driven by peer
pressure and she did it for fun. Client also mentioned that she started smoking
at the age of 14. She was counselled and parents were called down to school as
To aid her in better coping during
stressful events, she may want to call National Addictions Management Service (NAMS)
which provide residential detoxification and rehabilitation (health promotion board, 2001 ), not only that but
she can also come up with a better plan to release her stress coping management
and not to indulge such activities in the future.
We understand that the client has a
boyfriend but is not sexually active. Aisyah is shy to explain her sexual life.
Although she may only be 15 years old, there are some safety steps she can take
to prevent any other complications.
Ministry of Education has implement sexual education in
school to spread awareness of the complications for unsafe sex. Sexuality
education is a process of acquiring knowledge and forming attitudes, beliefs
and values with regard to human sexuality. The MOE Sexuality Education
helps students to understand the physiological emotional and social changes
they may experience as they mature, to develop healthy and rewarding
relationships, and to make wise decisions in the future. (Ministry
In conclusion, adolescents transition is important in one’s
adolescent experience enormous and significant changes in every single aspect
of their lives as they make the transition from childhood into adulthood.