Tobacco-related middle-income countries, in case of persisting such smoking

Tobacco-related diseases and deaths reached their peak in 2015 and then declined.

 

Smoking is the main cause of avoidable diseases and leads to five million deaths every year, 80% are in low- and middle-income countries, in case of persisting such smoking behavior will give rise to ten million individuals each year by 2020(1).

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Recognize that scientific evidence has unequivocally established that exposure to tobacco smoke causes death, disease, and disability”.15 Furthermore, they recognize that there is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke and therefore recommend effective measures to provide protection from exposure to tobacco smoke,

Worldwide, 40% of children, 33% of male non-smokers, and 35% of female non-smokers were exposed to second-hand smoke

children are more heavily exposed to second-hand smoke than any other age-group, and they are not able to avoid the main source of exposure—mainly their close relatives who smoke at home

 

 

 In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries tobacco manufacturing declined to 36% in developed countries while it reached more than two times its production in developing countries.

Seven multinational tobacco companies dominate the world cigarette market, led by Altria, British American Tobacco, and Japan Tobacco, which collectively manufacture more than 2 trillion cigarettes per year with different smoking sources

Cigarette

smoking causes a wide spectrum of diseases and affects every organ system in the body

Lung cancer was the first disease causally linked to smoking. Over the years the list of cancers caused by smoking has expanded considerably to include cancer of the oral cavity, oropharynx and hypopharynx, esophagus,

stomach, liver, pancreas, larynx, nasopharynx, nasal cavity and nasal sinuses, urinary bladder, kidney, and uterine cervix, and myeloid leukemia. More than 1.3 million new lung cancer cases (50% in developing countries; 71% in males) and 644,000 cancers of the oral cavity, nasopharynx, other pharynx, or larynx (63% in developing countries; 74% in

males) are diagnosed annually, most of which are attributable to tobacco use

 

In Europe and North America, 90% of esophageal cancers are attributable to tobacco use cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide (89). Although the burden of cardiovascular diseases is decreasing in industrialized countries, it is increasing in developing countries (80, 148). In the Global Burden of Disease Study, the proportions of ischemic heart disease and stroke attributable to smoking were both 12%

 

An estimated 2.2 million deaths worldwide were due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in 1990, and the number of deaths is expected to reach 4.7 million in 2020 approximately 80%–

90% of COPD deaths are due to smoking

 

China is the world’s leading producer and consumer of tobacco

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gap in deaths between low- and middle-income countries and high-income countries is expected to widen further over the next several decades

 

 

If we do not continue to expand and intensify tobacco control efforts, millions of people will continue to die each year from preventable tobacco-related illness, and tens of billions of dollars will be lost annually to avoidable health-care expenditures and productivity losses

By taking action to implement the measures to reduce tobacco use, governments and civil society can and will save millions of lives each year.

 

 

 

 

1.            Davis RM, Wakefield M, Amos A, Gupta PC. The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Tobacco Control: a global assessment of harms, remedies, and controversies. Annu Rev Public Health. 2007;28:171-94.