The following essay is about a
scenario, in which a four-year-old Emily has been admitted to the hospital with
gastroenteritis. She has decreased urine output and is not taking any fluids
orally causing her to be dehydrated. She also has stomach pains from the
frequent passing of stools. Firstly, the author will write about the clinical
element of the scenario so basically information about gastroenteritis, red
flag symptoms, Bristol stool chart and pain management. Secondly, the author
will then link the scenario to the theories such as Piaget’s stages of
development, distraction techniques (play) and care planning. Thirdly, the
author will write about professional values that nurses needs to follow e.g.
following NMC Code which states to show dignity, respect, advocating the
patient and gaining consent for treatment or care.
“Gastroenteritis is an infection of
the gut (intestines). Rotavirus is the most common virus causing gastroenteritis
in children in the UK.” (Knott, 2014) It
can also be caused other factors such as contamination in water and food (food
poisoning) which can occur when travelling aboard. The common symptoms for gastroenteritis are
diarrhoea and vomiting however children with gastroenteritis may also have
stomach pain and fever (Imodium, 2016).
Normally symptoms such as vomiting will last about one to three days whereas
diarrhoea will last at least five to seven days however sometimes children can
have these common symptoms for up to two weeks.
There are many precautions that
should be taken when caring for children with gastroenteritis as it can spread
very easily. To reduce the spread of infection, it is very important to follow
these steps such as wear gloves and aprons when changing the child, washing
hands regularly with water and soap, cleaning the toilet with disinfectant
after the child has used it and also making sure that the other people are not
using the same towels and cutlery as the child with gastroenteritis. If the
child shows symptoms of gastroenteritis then they should avoid any contact with
other children so they should not return to the school/nursery (NHS, 2017).
of the red flag symptoms that the parent needs to look out for are if the child
is unresponsive and not talking that much and also if the child’s urine output
is decreasing as it is a sign for dehydration. Gastroenteritis can cause
dehydration as they are losing fluids through vomiting and diarrhoea. If the
child is dehydrated, their breathing rate and heart rate will increase rapidly
causing the child’s blood pressure to go up. If the child’s body does not have balanced
fluids, it will start to affect the body as it will not function properly. The
parents should call the GP if the common symptoms last longer than two weeks
and also if they find blood or mucus in the child’s stool (NHS Direct Wales, 2017).