Social “ethnic and gender disparities in terms of payouts,

Social
Security was established in 1935 by the Social Security Act (Jimenez, 2015). It
is the most important of all the welfare programs (Jimenez, 2015)!
Additionally, it is the largest social welfare program in the United States; even
though it’s not really much a welfare program (Jimenez, 2015). Instead, it’s
intended to be more of an insurance type program for those in the workforce (Jimenez,
2015). Through this program, funds are matched and distributed based on the
earnings a worker made prior to retirement (Jimenez, 2015). The money then
remains in a trust fund and is paid out in the form of monthly penchants once
the worker retires (Jimenez, 2015).

Over
90% of those who are retired in the United States receive some form of retirement
pension under the social security act (Jimenez, 2015). Additionally, since a
policy change made in 1956, Social Security has also insured and paid workers
who have lost wages due to disability (Jimenez, 2015). 56 million people have received
Social Security according a survey conducted in 2012 (Jimenez, 2015). 75% of
them were retired workers or widows and widowers over 65, whereas another 11
million were disabled, and then there was another 2 million who received
benefits as survivors of deceased workers (Jimenez, 2015).

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It
seems like the pretty ideal program, however, like any other social welfare
programs, many issues surround it it (Jimenez, 2015). For example, there is a lack
of solvency, as well as “ethnic and gender disparities in terms of payouts, the
income cap on taxable wages, the use of the Social Security trust fund to pay
current debts of the federal government, and the potential privatization of
Social Security funds” (Jimenez, 2015).

Social Security,
however, was not intended to be the only source of support for retirees, but
instead, it was designed to supplement pensions and other savings belonging to
the retiree. (Jimenez, 2015). Because there
are still those whose still fall below the poverty line, even after social security
benefits are disburse or who are ineligible for Social Security can receive
cash grants through the program (Jimenez, 2015).

Supplemental
Security Income (SSI) was created by Congress in 1974 (Jimenez,
2015). It replaced multiple programs, such as Old Age Assistance and Aid to the
Blind and Totally Disabled (Jimenez, 2015). Like social
security income, supplemental security income is aimed to help low-income,
retirement age workers and those with disabilities who are not eligible for
grants under Old Age Survivors and Disability insurance (OASDI) (Jimenez,
2015). However, unlike Social Security Income, children under the age of 18 who
are single and unmarried and meet the income level and disability criteria are
also eligible (Jimenez, 2015).

“It is funded
largely by general revenue funds of the federal government and supplemented by
some states; there is reluctance by public officials to spend adequately for
those covered by SSI” (Jimenez, 2015). In 2012, 8.3
million people received SSI benefits, however this number didn’t take into
account the dependents of disabled beneficiaries who are receiving benefits,
approximately 25% of SSI recipients received benefits on the basis of age, 16%
of which were disabled children under the age of 18, whereas another 75% were
disabled adults ages ranging from 18 – 64, and then there was 1% who were blind
(Jimenez,
2015). It seems that the numbers of disabled persons receiving benefits have
become increasingly popular over the years and fewer of those receiving benefits
are 65 and older (Jimenez, 2015).

There are other
restrictions that may make one ineligible for benefits. These include
immigrants who are not citizens who came to the country after August 1996 as
well as those disable due to accidents that included drugs and alcohol or drug (Jimenez,
2015). It does not matter the age, disability, or income (Jimenez,
2015). The federal standard for SSI benefits is not aimed to bring individuals
or families out of poverty. It’s simply a there to supplement social security
income(Jimenez,
2015).

 Both conservatives and liberals share common views
about the nature of the social order and policy in the United States, such as equality
and fairness, as well as the open social and economic structure that allows all
individuals to move up the economic ladder, however, they both hold two very different
views when it comes to government involvement (Jimenez, 2015).

Conservatives hold
the belief that social welfare policies make people less self-reliant and more
independent of the government, whereas liberals are all for the government
helping out because they feel as if it is a safety net protecting the people of
the United States (Jimenez, 2015). Conservatives
believe that government involvement has become excessive and more and more
people have begun to rely on it, whereas liberals believe that the government
helps the market system perform better and also protect citizens from the greed
of big business houses (Jimenez, 2015). Conservations
on the other hand believe in a free market and think that together, the free
market, competitive capitalism, an market enterprise create the greatest opportunities
and standard of living (Jimenez, 2015). Overall, conservatives
wish to limit government involvement, whereas liberals want to expand it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jimenez,
Jillian. Social Policy and Social Change: Toward the Creation of Social and
Economic Justice, 2nd Edition. SAGE Publications, Inc, 2015. Argosy
University.