Pronouns nouns, other pronounce or noun phrases. Pronouns are

Pronouns the group of words which are able to be used instead of other words such as nouns, other pronounce or noun phrases. Pronouns are used for many purposes i.e. for writers and speakers to avoid repetition (the Oxford Dictionary). There are several kinds of pronouns such as: personal, reflective, possessive, indefinite, demonstrative, reciprocal, relative and interrogative (Collins, 1990). The personal pronouns can be used to refer to things or people that the speaker is talking to, or talking about. They can be used as a medium for him to refer to himself as well. Personal pronouns can be divided into two kind subjective personal pronoun and objective personal pronouns.

This subjective personal pronouns refer to subject complement subject of a clause which includes; I, we, you, he, she, it and they. While objective personal pronoun includes the things and people as the equivalent subject pronouns (Collins, 1990). Object pronouns are used either as the object, subject compliment or prepositional complement of a clause (Quirk et al, 1972). The objective personal pronouns are: me, us, you, him, her, it, and them. (Collins, 1990)

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Function

Subjective Case

Objective  Case

Subject

She was there

 

Subject Compliment

It was she

It was her

Object

 

I saw her at church

Prepositional Compliment

 

We cannot make it without her

 

Table 1. Table showing the subjective personal pronouns and the objective personal pronouns. (Quirk et al., 1972)

Reflexive pronouns are used once the speaker needs to point out that the topic of a verb is that the same factor or person because the object of a verb. The reflexive pronouns are: myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, itself, and themselves. In contrast to the private and possessive pronouns, there are two types of reflexive pronouns to use for the second person; yourself once the speaker is talking concerning one person, and yourselves once he’s speech over one person (Collins, 1990). Samples of however reflexive pronouns square measure used are: “I was feeling smart concerning myself that day” and “We all introduced ourselves to the new individuals within the group”. Reflexive pronouns are also used to stress that {the object the factor the item the article} of a verb refers to identical thing or person because the subject of a verb; “she forced herself to travel to the gym club.” (Collins, 1990).

The possessive pronouns are: mine, my, our(s), your(s), his, hers and their(s). They are used to write about people or things and how they are connected to other people or things.By the use of possessive pronoun the speaker or writer intends to shows that something is related or associated to something or someone else. Example “This is my car”, “Where is your house?” and “She is his daughter”. (Collins 1990). Indefinite pronouns are used when the speaker wants to refer to things or people but you do not know exactly what or who they are, or their identity is not of importance. An indefinite pronoun indicates only whether you are talking about people or things, rather than referring to a specific person or thing. The indefinite pronouns are: anybody, anyone, anything, everybody, everyone, everything, nobody, no one, nothing, somebody, someone and Function Subjective case Objective case Subject She was there Subject complement It was she It was her Object I saw her in church Prepositional complement We cannot make it without her B something. Indefinite pronouns are used in several different ways. For example, it can be used as a way to refer to people: “what is everybody doing here?” and used with singular verbs: “Everything is here” (Collins, 1990). “That, this, those and these are all demonstrative pronouns. They can be used as subjects of the objects in a clause, or the object of a preposition.

Demonstrative pronouns can be used as a way to refer to people and things, usually things” (Collins 1990: 35) Examples of how to use demonstrative pronouns are: “This is a really good book, but I don’t like that one” and “I got these magazines at the store” (Collins 1990:35). Each other and one another are examples of reciprocal pronouns. They are used to suggest that people feel the same way, do the same thing or have the same relationship. Reciprocal pronouns are used as indirect objects or objects of verbs. Examples of how reciprocal pronouns are used are: “They cannot stand each other” and “two people moving away from one another” (Collins 1990). Who, whom, which or that are known as relative pronouns; they are used by the speaker when a sentence includes a main clause followed by a relative clause. Relative pronouns have two functions. They refer to something or someone that has already been mentioned, and they are conjunctions, because they join clauses together. Who and whom always refer to people. Examples of how who and whom are used are: “Guess who I met yesterday?” and “The boys whom we cannot talk to”. That can refer to both people and things: “The girl that plays tennis”, “it was the first movie that he had ever seen”. Which always refers to things, it can be used as the subject or object of a relative clause, as well as the object of a preposition. Which can be used as a relative pronoun in the following way: “The building in which I went to school” (Collins 1990:39f). Who, whose, whom, that which are interrogative pronouns; meaning that they can be used as objects or subjects of a clause, or objects of a preposition. Interrogative pronouns refer to the information the speaker is asking for. Examples of how to use interrogative pronouns are: “That is a nice painting, whose is it?” and “What is he doing?” (Collins 1990:40).