Perhaps do not follow rules and regulations pose a

Perhaps
one of the greatest and most complex social dilemmas has been the processing
and treatment of the social deviant. Members of any society who do not follow
rules and regulations pose a natural threat to the group. Although the
traditional Auburn-style prison is perhaps the most common image representing
punishment in India, dealing with offenders has a somewhat horrible past. Prior
to the 19th century confinement was viewed as a means to an end, rather than an
end in and of itself. Through pain and public humiliation, offenders were
expected to atone for their social sins, sins committed against God, a monarch
and society. The term punishment has been referred to as ‘crime handling’
although its meaning is restricted to measures which are deliberately intended
to inflict pain on an offender in response to an offence that he or she has
committed. However the infliction of pain is not universally accepted as a goal
of punishment. The Enlightenment brought about great change in the application
of punishment. Punishment is usually seen by modern theorists of the prison as
containing a number of different elements. These are the deterrence,
rehabilitation, incapacitation and retribution. Rehabilitation or reformation
is the process whereby the criminal is brought to face up to his/her crimes and
adjusts his personality in such a way as to make it less likely that they will
reoffend. Retribution refers to the pain of punishment that is delivered to the
prisoner. It announces the fact that the criminal justice system delivers a
just measure of pain to those who break the law. Punishment also reinforced the
values of the wider society which stressed that all should work, and should
also all fit in to social hierarchies, also contained within families which
provide the basic structure of authority in early modern society. The dominance
of a progressive and scientific view of the penal system led to a view of the
history of the prison that saw it as an inevitable progress towards a more
humane, rational and effective system. Prisons in the 19th century may have
been places of ill health and corruption, but they allowed the inmates to
interact and to maintain a sort of human society with an often surprising
degree of integration with the world outside the prison.