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Introduction
Data
is a source of information where a researcher has to collect from
several parts of information organization and common people. The
collection of data usually provides a huge number of resources
whereas researchers are maintaining it systematically for future use.
This data is collected for a specific research problem and it makes a
useful resource by using tools and techniques of research1.
These data should be a primary data and secondary data, both the data
are added each other and make it useful for users. Data is collected
from the different fields by using tools and techniques of research
method like an interview,
questionnaire, observation, survey, focus group, etc. These tools are
helpful for a researcher and make the research result meaningful.

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In the field of
research, we have needed some research tools which is most important
for a researcher to collect their research data. The questionnaire
and observation are mainly used for the collection of data in the
field of research on a specific topic. So, these tools help the
researcher to modified their research and developed the research
topic2.

2.
Data collection:
Data
collection is known as investigation or gathering of information, in
relevant to the topic of the study. It is a systematic approach to
the investigation of information from a variety of sources to get an
accurate result of an area of interest3.
In the nature of
data and mode of collection, data should be classified into primary
and secondary. Primary data collection is an original collection of a
specific research topic and it has been collected from the field.
Secondary data collection is a data that is. recorded by someone and
is being reused. Both of data collection mainly depends upon the
nature, objective and scope of investigation availability.

3.
Tools for Data Collection:

For the data
collection, the using of tools is very important for retrieved an
accurate information and that allow the researcher to collect
information in systematically for their relevance of topic or
research. There are many types of research tools, we are discussed
only two tools which is most important in data collection process.
These are given below:

3.1. Questionnaire
and

3.2. Observation

3.1.
Questionnaire:

A
questionnaire is a tools of research which is gathering the data from
respondents. It is designed for statistical analysis of the
responses, the question must be easy to understand and able to answer
of them4.
A researcher has to provide a question for retrieved or collect a
fact answer in relevant to research. L. Cohen, L. Manion, and K.
Morrison define the questionnaire as “is widely used and useful
instrument for collecting survey information, providing structured,
often numerical data, being able to be administered without the
presence of the researcher, and often being comparatively
straightforward to analyze”5.
It provides a list of statements for respondents to indicating a
point of view to which they had to express a level of agreement or
disagreement6.
The researcher will
have to judge the appropriateness of using a questionnaire for data
collection, what kind of questionnaire it should be for a collection
of data.

3.1.1.
Advantage and Disadvantage of Questionnaire:

The field of
questionnaire design is provided a key element to indicating the main
issues of the research project. There are some advantages and some
disadvantages for questionnaire in a research. These are discussed
below:

3.1.1.1
Advantage of Questionnaire

It saves the
money.

Get information
quickly

Avoidance of
potential interviewer bias.

Get immediate
information from respondents.

Giving respondents
a greater feeling of anonymity and encourage.

3.1.1.2.
Disadvantage of Questionnaire:

It takes more time
to get factual information.

The quality of
data searching is complicated to find out the factual information
through a questionnaire.

The using of the
long questionnaire is troubled to respondents.

Respondents’ can’t
understand a complicated question and unable to answer.

Researcher can’t
control all the respondents

Illiterate peoples
are difficult to understand and they can’t give a proper answer to
the question.

The written
questionnaire does not allow an interviewer to correct
misunderstandings or answer question7.

4.
Observation:

An observation is a
tool of data gathering directly with the human beings to observe the
behaviour of respondents group and record the information. It implies
that the use of eyes ear and the voice 8.
According to Lindzey Gardner Observation is a “selection,
provocation, recording and encoding of that set of behaviours and
settings concerning organisms ‘in situ’ which are consistent with
empirical aims”9.
In this sense, observer focus on the natural setting which increases
clarity of information and involved in recording this information.
The observer has to focus on the activities of observing groups
behaviour, physical action, spatial relation, temporal patterns,
verbal records, etc. It determines the reality of behavior and
documents the properties of the object. The source of observation is
basically determined the respondent’s behaviours, gestures, tone,
fashion, non-verbal expressions, facial expressions, participant’s
oral comments and where the interview takes place.

5.
Types of Observation

Observation
is basically classified into two parts. These are discuss below:
5.1.
Participant Observation and5.2
Non participant Observation

5.1.
Participant Observation

Participant
observation is the observer participates to study in a specific
research topic and investigate the factual information through
participating himself in the field. The observer can understand how
the observed groups expressed their statements and emotional reaction
with interviewer10.
The observer can get real or factual information from them.

5.2.
Non-participant Observation

Non-participant
observation is the observer does not present in the activities
of the group, but simply observes them from a distance11.
Non-participant observation can not understand the real information
and can’t clarify the factual information in the research.

2.1.
Advantage and Disadvantage of Observation

For
the observation, there is an advantage and disadvantage to gather the
data with peoples in a specific field. Some respondents are able to
understand the questions and some other respondents are unable to
understand because of their literacy and researcher unable to get
factual information. These are given below:

2.1.1.
Advantage of Observation
Observed
natural activities;
Able
to conduct longer period;
It
is inexpensive;
Modified
at any time;
Observer
can directly check the accuracy of the observed;

It
uses common method as physical or social;

2.1.2.
Disadvantage of Observation:

Can’t control all
the activities of human behaviour

The measurement of
behaviour is very difficult to researcher.

It is difficult to
maintain the respondent’s anonymity

They able to study
only limited issues

Lack of
reliability

It takes more time
to get information.

1
Hox, J. J., & Boeije, H. R. (2005). Data collection, primary
versus secondary.

2
Jaycox, L., Hickman, L., Schultz, D., Barnes-Proby, D., Setodji, C.,
Kofner, A., . . . Francois, T. (2011). Data Collection Procedures.
In National Evaluation of Safe Start Promising Approaches:
Assessing Program Outcomes (pp. 29-36). RAND Corporation.
Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7249/j.ctt3fgztt.12

3
Gupta, S. (2010). Research
methodology and statistical techniques.
New Delhi: Deep and Deep Publications Pvt. Ltd.

4Wong,
C., Aharoni, E., Aliyev, G., & Du Bois, J. (2015). Methods and
Data Collection. In The Potential of Blind Collaborative
Justice: Testing the Impact of Expert Blinding and Consensus
Building on the Validity of Forensic Testimony (pp. 8-15). RAND
Corporation. Retrieved from
http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7249/j.ctt19x3gkr.10

5
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research
methods in education 6th ed. London: Routledge

6
BABAN, S. (1998). Developing a Holistic View of Geographical
Information Systems. Geography, 83(3), 257-265.
Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40573212

7
Hoyle, R. H., Harris, M. J., & Judd, C. M. (n.d.). Research
methods in social relations. Belmont Drive, CA: Wadsworth.

8
Polkinghorne, D. E. (2005). Language and meaning: Data collection
in qualitative research. Journal of counseling psychology,
52(2), 137.

9
Ahuja, R. (2001). Research methods. Jaipur: Rawat.

10
.RANGANATHAM M., KRISHNASWAMI O. R. (2016). METHODOLOGY OF
RESEARCH IN SOCIAL SCIENCES. S.l.: HIMALAYA PUBLISHING HOUSE.

11
Bajpai, S. R. (1972). Methods of social survey and research.
Kanpur: Kitabghar.