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 A Public Announcement (PA) system is an electronic system that comprises of amplifiers, loudspeakers , microphones and related audio equipment. This electronic system increases the volume of the human voice , musical instrument or any acoustic or recorded music. This is so that the sound can reach a larger and wider audience. Public Announcement systems are commonly used in large spaces such as sports stadiums , public transport facilities or festivals and events. A Public Announcement has a mixing console to change or combine different sources of sound. 

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The foundation of a Public Announcement system is about the microphone converting the sound into an electric signal. This signal is processed and used to change the amplitude and sound frequency and amplify the signal to drive an output which converts the signals into sound. There are sound engineers that are present at the mixing console to process the sound and aid performers on stage if there are any. On stage, performers use monitor wedges or In-Ear Monitors to hear themselves and anyone else on stage. 

There are many different types Public Announcement systems. Depending on your situation, a different kind of Public Announcement system will be used. 

There are also Passive Speakers and Active Speakers. Active speakers have an in-built power amplifier and just need a power source (or battery) to operate, where passive speakers require an external power amplifier to operate.
In short, you need an amplifier for passive speakers, you don’t have to with active speakers.
An active speaker is essentially an all-in-one system that powers your speakers, just like a combo amplifier that guitarists or bass players use. The amplifier is built in to the speaker cabinet, so all you have to do is connect the PA speakers to power (or use a battery) and feed a line-level signal into it. This could be a vocal microphone, a guitar or even an MP3 player.
A selection of active PA speakers also include mixers already built in, with EQ settings and even microphone pre amps, so you can mix the sound directly on the speaker to professional standards easily. These are ideal for bands, DJ’s, professional public orators and the likes of café owners or schools who want to be able to play both live and pre-recorded music, without too much fuss. There’s also a huge range of battery powered and portable PA’s that are ideal for buskers, public speakers and even functions. An active speaker system is by far the best PA system for orators, or even small places of worship.

Passive speakers are a little different, as they require separate amplifiers or mixers to power them and they also need speaker cables to be able to transfer the sound from amplifier to speakers. As passive speakers are NOT an all-in-one system, you will have to make sure that your speakers and amplifier are compatible with their respective impedance and power ratings. If you get this wrong, you risk either blowing your speakers up, or not getting the best sound out of them.
If you’re a DJ or want to use your speaker system for live events, you may want to use a sub-woofer too. To do this, you’ll need separate crossover components installed within the speakers or the amplifier. This crossover path splits your signal so the high frequencies can go to the tweeter (main speaker) and the low frequencies are directed to the sub-woofer or bass bins. This is part of the reason why passive PA speaker systems are sometimes better for bigger live sound set ups.
Pros of active PA speakers:  
Active speakers are usually set up as an all-in-one solution, which means all you have to do is plug your line-level sound in and you’re good to go.
 
In most cases, the amplifier is completely tuned to the speakers already. Which means you get the best sound straight out of the box.

If you want to make changes, active speakers have the ability to sculpt the sound to how you want it on the back of the speaker, so there’s no need for a sound engineer.

You don’t need any technical experience to use one, they are easy to set up.

Most are designed to be battery powered, making them a great portable solution.

If you want to upgrade your system and you’ve got active PA speakers left over, you can re-use them for monitors on stage as the cabinets are often designed with an angled back so the sound projects upwards towards the artist or speaker. All you have to do is connect your extra speakers to the pre-fader aux send which will be found on the back of your PA system and you can get a direct monitor mix fed to you.

Cons of active PA speakers
Due to the fact that active PA speakers have an amplifier built-in, they can be a little (or in some cases, a lot) heavier to carry. For the likes of touring bands, this can get tedious pretty quickly!

If you install your active PA speakers in a setting permanently and the amplifier breaks down, you might have to get an engineer to come to you to fix them. As the amplifier is inside the speakers, you have to take the entire unit to get fixed rather than just replacing the broken element.

If your active PA system goes down, you can’t just swap out the broken element. The whole speaker will need to be sent for repair and will be out of action.

Pros of passive PA speakers
As passive PA speakers and amplifiers are separate entities, you can upscale your operation easily. You might have an amplifier with 4 channels on, but only 2 speakers. But when the time comes, you can add more speakers to it easily. Just match the power ratings and impedance and you’re good to go.  

You can upgrade your amplifier or speakers separately without having to replace an entire PA system.
Passive speakers are lightweight thanks to the fact they don’t have amplifiers inside them. This means they’re easier to lift and install. Especially handy if you’re taking your 

PA on the road or to different venues. Servicing your PA system is a lot easier! If the amplifier breaks down, you just replace that. If the speaker blows, you can swap it out for another one while you’re getting the broken one fixed. Maintenance is a lot easier with a powered system.

After you’ve installed your speakers around the room, church or school, you can go back to the mixing area and change settings from your control centre rather than run around the room to make changes to each speaker separately. This is a great benefit if you’ve hardwired your speaker system into your venue.

Cons of passive PA speakers
Getting the right amplifier for your speakers in terms of power ratings and impedance can be a little difficult if you don’t know what you’re doing.
If you’re running a lot of speakers around the room, there’s more of a chance of signal loss. Signal loss starts to occur once the distance of cable from amplifier to speaker exceeds 18.5ft, so if you’re running a large setup with standard loudspeaker wire, this can sometimes have a negative impact on your sound. Just make sure you buy good quality loudspeaker cables.

A subwoofer could also be added to the Public Announcement System. 
A subwoofer is a speaker that reproduce low sound frequencies from 20Hz to 80Hz. 
A subwoofer adds depth to the lower notes adding fullness and sonority. 
The subwoofer is run through the output of the mixing console through a crossover network which splits the signal into many different frequency bands. 

The main factors that are go into what kind of Public Announcement system to use would be the speaker type, power and size. The size of the audience would also be another variable. 

The Line Array follow wavelength theory and geometry to focus the sound at the audiences without wasting energy. 
Line array speakers are speakers that are aligned in a shape of a “J” . The speakers are arranged in a way that the speakers are arranged straight at the top and curved at the bottom. This solves the issue of speakers facing towards the top, while the speakers at the bottom are curved to point towards the people. Each speaker in the array “shoots” the sound. There will usually be line of subwoofers that are placed beside the speakers. 

Before the invention of the Line Arrays, there was the Centre Cluster. The Centre Cluster works slightly differently from the Line Arrays . The way that the Centre Clusters work is that they use multiple loudspeakers that are arrayed together into a circular formation.They are then mounted up to face and cover the audience. This means that every audience member gets the sound from one speaker which makes it very clear. Having one speaker eliminates the problem of delay from sound propagation from another speaker. However, if there is only one speaker that is producing sound, there is a limit to how loud the speaker can go before it blows up. This problem led to to the development of the line array. 

There are many different brands of Front Of House Speakers and monitor speakers. Examples of such brands are Sony , Pioneer , Philips , Peavey Electronics and Yamaha to name a few.

There are many variables that contribute to the amount of watts per person. Such as the venue and the genre of music that is played.
As there are too many variables to consider when talking about whether one watt is enough per person. It would be safe to say that it is not enough as the external conditions play a very large role.