Job satisfaction is probably the most heavily examined
concept in the field of organizational behavior (Blau, 1999). One of most important elements of work
environment is job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is seen as an outcome of
individual and organizational variables. Job satisfaction, in fact, is
considered to be a manifestation of general internal and external forces that
exert influence on the individuals at work.
Organizational culture is a vital factor that shapes and
determines job satisfaction. Various researches have previously been conducted
to study the impact of organizational culture on job satisfaction. Past
researches have shown supporting evidence about the relationship between
organizational culture and job satisfaction (Schneider & Snyder, 1975;
Kerego & Mthupha, 1997).
Many studies have been done in the past related to the
relationship between leadership qualities, organizational culture on employee
performance (Xenikou & Simosi, 2006). Many researchers have conducted the
study on the effect of organizational culture and leadership. The
organizational culture and employer leadership style with employee effects on
employee performance and increase in revenue. Some of the researchers have also
measured the level of job satisfaction of employee in organizational culture
marketing staff job satisfaction is higher than the employees work as a staff
or managerial positions (Densten & Sarros, 2012). However, study was done
on organizational culture relation with job satisfaction and organizational
commitment has been done in the banking sector. Therefore, still there is the
need to expand the study on organizational culture, and to measure the level of
employee satisfaction with job and organizational commitment in Hotel Industry
in Nepal. As the franchise hotel has
been increasing in Nepal and employee in owner managed hotels seems to be
unsatisfied due several reason. So as people are more attracted in the
franchisee hotels and as per initial survey, employee seems to be dissatisfied
because of the organizational culture of the local managed hotels. This
research tried to see whether culture is the main factor of job dissatisfaction
Objectives of the Study
Study the organizational culture in practice in the hotel
industry of Nepal and examine the impact of organizational culture on the job
satisfaction of its employees.
Does the organizational culture have an impact on the level
of job satisfaction of employees in the hotel industry in Nepal?
Scope of the study
This research intends to study the type of organizational
culture in practice in different hotels, the level of job satisfaction of their
employees, and the relationship between organizational culture and job
satisfaction in hotels.
Relevance of the study
Job Satisfaction of employees is one of the key reasons for
success in any organization. Job Satisfaction has been related to several other
factors that work towards improving the performance of a business. Job
satisfaction in employees is imperative in maintaining a low turnover rate.
Job satisfaction has also been linked with higher
productivity and consequently higher profits for the company. Human resource is
a key resource for any business and is a major source of competitive advantage
in the modern business world; and especially true for service businesses.
Review of Literature
Edgar Schein defined organizational culture as “A pattern of
shared basic assumptions that a group has learned as it solved its problems of
external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be
considered valid and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to
perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems” (Schein, 2004). Watson
(2006) opines that the concept of culture is a derivative of a metaphor meaning
‘something cultivated’. Overall, most practitioners studying organizations
agree that organizational culture refers to the patterns of shared basic
assumptions which influences the way employees behave and accomplish their set
tasks (Schein, 1985).
Organizational culture is commonly understood to be holistic
and multidimensional idea that is established by history and socially created
(Hofstede, Neuijen, Ohayv, & Sanders, 1990). Organizational culture can
also be apparent through conversation and behavior in addition to
organizational practices (Schein, 1985). Moreover, it can be characterized by
company artifacts, dress codes, grooming standards, ceremonies, often narrated
company stories, and how a company deals with emergencies; all of this indicate
towards an organization’s values, beliefs, and underlying assumptions (Beach,
2006; Rafaeli & Pratt, 2006).
Locke (1976) described overall job satisfaction as a
pleasurable or positive emotional state that results from the evaluation of
one’s job. Brooke et al. (1988) claimed that job satisfaction reflects an
individual’s general attitude towards the job, stemming from the gratification
of needs and wants, while Hirschfeld (2000) referred to an expression of one’s feelings
about his/her job. It appears, however, that individuals tend to experience
greater levels of job satisfaction when their abilities, values and experiences
can be utilized in the working environment and when their expectations are met
(Buitendach and De Witte, 2005; Roberts and Roseanne, 1998).
Sabri et al (2011) conducted a research on 347 teachers to
study the effect of organizational culture on the level of job satisfaction of
teachers in public and private sector higher education institutes and
universities of Lahore. Supportive organizational culture may raise the level
of job satisfaction of teachers and satisfied teachers may produce healthy,
satisfied and creative minds.
Bake and Nalla (2009) studied the relationship between
organizational culture and job satisfaction among police officers working in
various cities in two Midwestern states in United States. They gathered the
data for the study from 669 respondents in five medium and large sized police
organizations in two Midwestern States. More specifically, police officers’
perceptions about organizational factors of job satisfaction was examined and
suggested that organizational characteristics are better predictors of job
satisfaction than individual factors.
Literature review shows that, in the earlier stages,
organizational culture was difficult to define, standardize and measure due to
its subjective nature. In earlier researches, the researchers tried to classify
organizational culture through stories, artifacts and norms that emerge from
individual and organizational conduct (Lund, 2003). Many researchers have tried
to develop some standards to define and measure organizational culture. Cameron
and Freeman (1991) developed a model that categorizes organizational culture in
two dimensions and four cultural types. One of the dimensions ranged from
‘feeling’ to ‘thinking’ whereas another ranged from ‘intuiting’ to ‘sensing’.
The four types of culture that emerged from this framework were called clan,
hierarchy, adhocracy and market culture. Each culture possesses opposite
characteristics from the diagonal culture in the figure but shares some
characteristics with the two cultures in adjacent quadrants. (Cameron, 1985)
Figure: Model for Organizational
Culture (Cameron and Freeman, 1991)
The Clan Culture has dominant attributes of cohesiveness,
participation, teamwork and a sense of family. Similarly, Adhocracy culture has
dominant attributes of entrepreneurship, creativity and adaptability. Hierarchy
has attributes of order, rules and regulation, and uniformity. Market culture
on the other hand has attributes of competitiveness and goal achievement.
(Gull, S. and Azam, F., 2012)
The identification of the variables was done on the basis of
the review of literature. The identified variables of the study are:
Independent Variable: Organization Culture
Dependent Variable: Job Satisfaction
The relationship of the variables have been presented in the
Figure: Conceptual Framework
Hypothesis: Organizational Culture
has an impact on the level of job satisfaction of employees in the hotel
industry of Nepal.
The main purpose for the design of this
study is to understand the correlation between the dependent and independent
variable. The experimental design is a hypothesis testing analysis. The length
of the study will be one month (or 30 days). A cross-sectional study will be
best suited for this research. Unit of analysis will be the individual employees
of the hotels. A non-contrived setting is chosen as the study does not intend
to interfere with the normal setting of the organization.
The study will be conducted in different hotels inside
Kathmandu Valley. Only big hotels of three star and above will be selected for
the purpose of this study. For hotels that have branches outside Kathmandu
Valley as well, the study will be conducted in the branches inside Kathmandu
Population and sample
This research intends to study the level of job satisfaction
of employees in different hotels in Kathmandu and the impact of organizational
culture. The population of the research is the
employees of Hotels in Nepal. Employees in different hotels inside Kathmandu
Valley will be selected as sample.
Sample design and size
The sampling design will be based on non-probability
sampling. The study will be done amongst two different groups of employees,
management and non-management. Quota sampling will be employed to ensure
representation from both management and non-management group. 50 employees each
will be selected from ten different hotels inside Kathmandu as sample.
The list of the hotels where the study will be conducted is
According to literature, the instruments that are most
commonly used to measure job satisfaction are The Job Satisfaction Survey and
The Job Description Index. The measurement tool to be used for the purpose of
this research will be The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) developed by Paul E.
Spector. The JSS is a questionnaire
consisting of 18 items which look at nine different aspects of job satisfaction
– pay, promotion, benefits, supervision, contingent rewards, operating
procedures, coworkers, nature of work, and promotion. Response to each question
ranges from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”.
The measurement of organizational culture will be done with
the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) developed by Kim
Cameron and Robert Quinn. Each participant is asked to divide
100 points over four alternatives that correspond to the four culture types,
according to the present organization. This method measures the mix of or
extent to which one of the four culture types dominates the present organizational
or team culture. By taking the test a second time, this time dividing the 100
points over the same alternatives according to what the participant would like
to see in the company, the desire for change can be measured. Participants will
judge six dimensions of their organization – dominant characteristics,
organizational leadership, management of employees, organizational glue,
strategic emphasis, and criteria of success.
Data collection methods
The source of data for this research will be primary source.
Data will be collected through questionnaires provided to the selected
participants. A soft copy of the questionnaires will be emailed to participants
for the collection of the required data.
Data Analysis will be done using SPSS software. Frequency
test will be conducted to measure the frequency of demographic variables and to
check whether the data has normal distribution. One way ANOVA will be done to
test the hypothesis based on demographic variables with both dependent and
independent variables. Correlation and Regression will be carried out to test
the hypothesis based on main dependent and independent variables, and to check
the strength and significance of the relationship between the variables.
Expected Applications of the Study
The application of the study is to find out whether there
are significant difference in job satisfaction levels in different hotels in
Nepal, especially between franchise hotels and owner-managed hotels. This can
be useful for any one of those types of hotels to change the cultural aspect in
their organization to improve on the level of job satisfaction of its
employees. The results are applicable not just for the existing hotels but also
the many new hotels that are being established in Nepal.
Limitations of the study
The results of the study should only be viewed in
light of the limitations. The research will focus only the hotels inside
Kathmandu Valley which may not be generalizable across the country. The
research will also only include big hotels inside the Kathmandu Valley (three
star and above) and hence the applicability of the findings of this research in
case of smaller hotels may be limited.