In uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt and there were

In
conclusion, social media had a big impact on the Egyptian revolution but it was
not the cause of it. It was an important tool in helping to organise protests
and to generate support for the protest movement. Social media websites
introduced an instant method of communication amongst people that hadn’t been
used in protesting before. However, it was simply a tool that helped the
uprising happen much quicker. The cause of the uprising was the strength of the
working-class people who fought against 30 years of oppression against
Mubarak’s leadership. Further research taken on this topic could include the
aftermath of this uprising and how Egypt have struggled to elect a settled
government. Mubarak’s government was replaced by the Muslim Brotherhood who
were seen to be as oppressive and were ousted by a military coup in 2013. The
party was replaced by Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, who also imposed repression and
intimidation on the people. Another area of further study is how the Egyptian
revolution impacted on other middle eastern countries. The Arab Spring began
with the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt and there were subsequent protests in
Libya, Yemen, Syria and Bahrain where either the regime was overthrown or major
uprisings and violence occurred. There were many demonstrations in other middle
eastern countries such as Morocco, Iraq, Algeria and Lebanon. However, many other
protests were unsuccessful as they were met with violent responses from the
authorities. Some large-scale conflicts resulted after these protests such as
the Syrian Civil War.

Conclusion

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Hundreds
of thousands of protesters gathered in Tahrir Square during the January 25th
protests in 2011. Mubarak resigned 18 days later after 30 years as Egypt’s
president. Egypt were among many middle eastern countries that had uprisings
from 2010 until 2012 in what became known as the Arab Spring. Egypt took
inspiration from the Tunisian uprising that had taken place a year earlier.
This gave the Egyptian people hope that they could have successful protests
against the leader Mubarak. The social media platforms provided a way to
communicate and organise demonstrations in a way that traditional methods
couldn’t keep up with. One protester is quoted as saying “We use Facebook to
schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world.”
Social media was well embedded into the lives of Egypt’s youth population at
the time with 60% of Egyptians under the age of 30 using it. The Facebook page
“We are all Khaled Said” was an important way to instil unity amongst the
Egyptian people by paying respect to a 28-year-old murdered by the police. The
Facebook page had 100,000 followers in three days and became the most followed
page in the middle east. This use of social media helped galvanise the people
The Egyptian revolution didn’t happen because of social media. It was about
more than just people who had access to Twitter and Facebook. The thousands of
working class people fighting against years of oppression was the real cause of
the uprising. The protests demonstrated the solidarity and resilience among the
working class Egyptian people.

Hypothesis
evidence

A
research method that I used was a case study. The case of Khaled Said who was
beaten and tortured to death by Egyptian police showed the corruption of the
Egyptian government and the police force. The 28-year-old had merely posted a
video of two police officers dividing confiscated drugs between themselves. The
brutality shown by the police was proof of the lack of freedom that the
Egyptian people had. The brutality of his murder galvanised the Egyptian people
and the Facebook page set up in Khaled Said’s honour increased the support for
the protests. 

Research Method

 

Social media introduced a
new way for Egyptian people to organise protests and spread a message of
defiance. There was increasing violence used by police in the final years of
Mubarak’s leadership. This led to millions of Egyptians demanding that Mubarak
be overthrown from being the leader of Egypt. Social media websites played an
important role in this uprising, especially in the organising of the January 25
protests. According to Internet World Stats, in February 2010, over 21% of
Egypt’s population had access to the internet and more than 4.5 million
Egyptians used Facebook. These stats showed that the internet had a huge number
of users in Egypt.

The hypothesis for this
assignment is that social media had a big impact on the Egyptian revolution but
that the revolution would have still occurred without it. The point I am making
in this assignment is that social media had a big impact because it created
such a quick and instant way for people to communicate with each other. It took
just 18 days from the start of the protests to overthrow the Egyptian leader
Mubarak. The impact that social media had is that it helped the protests become
more popular and widespread across the country. This enabled the Egyptian
people to overthrow the leader Mubarak in a period of just over 2 weeks. I
believe that the revolution would have still occurred without the help of
social media because people were protesting against years of oppression. The
resilience of the Egyptian people was the cause of the uprising. However, it
wouldn’t have happened in such a short space of time without the help of social
media.

Hypothesis

 

I
am investigating the impact that social media had on the Egyptian Revolution in
2011. This uprising occurred because of the political corruption, human rights
violations and high levels of unemployment in Egypt during Hosni Mubarak’s as
president. Social media provided a platform for Egyptian people to express
their views and spread their message of defiance in protest against the leader
Mubarak. Social media was an important tool because it enabled people to
organise demonstrations and protests against the government. It was also a
great way to generate support for the protest movement. Social media was
important because it provided a way for people to instantly communicate and
interact with each other and spread the protesters’ message of defiance. The Facebook
page set up to honour Khaled Said, who was tortured to death by police, was a
way of showing this unity amongst the Egyptian people. However, I don’t believe
that social media was the cause of the uprising. I believe that the revolution
would have occurred without it. Social media was definitely an important tool
for the protest movement and the uprising would have definitely taken longer
than 18 days without it. I believe that the uprising still would have occurred
but it would have been a much longer process.

Main
argument

Facebook
was used during the revolution to plan and arrange protests. On the 6th
of June 2010, Khaled Saeed, a 28-year old Egyptian who posted a video of police
officers sharing confiscated drugs between themselves was tortured to death by
two police officers in Alexandria, Egypt. Eye witnesses described that he
pleaded for mercy and asked why they were doing this to him, but they continued
to torture him until his death. A Facebook page was set up to show solidarity
for the victim who had been tortured to death by Egyptian police. It was called
“We are all Khaled Said”. It gathered 100,000 followers in three days and was a
sign of unity among the Egyptian people. It showed the extent of corruption in
the Egyptian government at the time and increased popularity for the protest
movement. Egyptian president Mubarak was planning to appoint his son as his
successor and protests were held because of this on the 21st
September 2010. Egyptian people were inspired by the Tunisians successful
removal of their president. The “We are all Khaled Said” Facebook page was used
to spread messages to organise protests on the 25th January 2011. The
Facebook page had a huge number of followers and news about the protests spread
quickly and this encouraged huge numbers of people to protest on the streets.
On 28th January over one million people joined the protests on what
was known as “Friday of rage”. The protesters faced huge obstacles but they
were successful after 18 days of protesting as president Mubarak resigned from
his presidency on the 11th February 2011.

The
Role of Social Media in the Egyptian Revolution: The Initiation Phase
(2010-2011) was an academic journal written by Amir Zeid and Fatima Al-Khalaf. In this
academic journal, the writers investigated the role that social media played in
the Egyptian Revolution that began on January 25th 2011. They
investigate why the Egyptian Revolution became known as a “Social Media
Revolution.” The number of people who participated in the protests grew rapidly
because of the number of people using social media and the amount of
information that could be sent instantly.

A
book called Liberation Square: Inside the Egyptian Revolution and
the Rebirth of a Nation by Ashraf Khalil was wrote in 2012.
The author, Ashraf Khalil was a journalist based in Cairo at the time of the
revolution. As a journalist based in Cairo, Ashraf Khalil was an eyewitness to
the protests and demonstrations that brought Mubarak’s 30-year reign as leader
of Egypt to an end. Khalil was amongst those who were subjected to tear gas
explosions in Tahrir Square during the protests. He speaks about the modern
technologies that helped unite Egyptian people. During the protests, the
Egyptian government realised the influence that social media could have and
decided to cut off internet and cell phone communication across Egypt on
January 28th 2011. This was an attempt to derail the protests but it
had the opposite effect. This ban on internet access galvanised the Egyptian
people because they saw it as a further attack on their freedom rights.

A journal article called The Arab Spring: Social Media in the
Egyptian revolution: Reconsidering Resource Mobilization Theory was written
by Nahed Eltantawy and Julie B. Wiest. The article argues that social media
played a hugely important role in the success of the anti-government protests
that led to Mubarak resigning as leader of Egypt. The article also calls for
further investigation into the incorporation of social media as a useful
resource for collective action and the organisation of important social
movements. The article states that modern communication technologies such as
social media have become important ways to help the mobilization of collective
action and the ensuing creation and organisation of social movements around the
world. Social media introduced an instant way for people to communicate and
join social networking groups to show support for the protests. The article
also gives a background to the 18-day revolution against president Mubarak. It
describes the factors that led to the events that triggered the protests
against Mubarak, particularly the corruption of presidential and parliamentary
elections and the oppressive conditions for Egyptian citizens that prevented
free expression, protest opportunities and a decent standard of living.

Relevant literature

Research question: How
did social media impact on the Egyptian Revolution in 2011?