Seeing and believing in the power of education to change the life of illiterate students, I’m determined to be an entrepreneur and want to create an enterprise that helps to connect students to better education and occupational skills so that they can break free from their cycle of lack of opportunity. I believe pursuing an European Master in Colour Science is the best way to accelerate my dream. I looked back and suddenly realized whenever there is a cross-road in life, I chose the harder path. It is the experience of this hard path that makes me who I am today. My plan is to partner with the experienced Government organization, NGO, Public Partnership, to invest in the developing talents in India, simultaneously bringing in mature techniques and leading technologies through investment into the practical program with technology companies. During my undergraduate course, I was taught, about Electronics and Communication with Physical Science that was designed in a way to learn by practice, makes me more confident to face the problems occurred in the future. The course itself covered a board range of processes and applications in the area of Computer Architecture & Organization, Object Oriented Programming, Data Structures, Introduction to Computers and Programming, Graph Theory, Physics, Consumer Electronics, and Digital Signal Processing with MATLAB. I also published a journal on “Design and simulation of half & full Vivaldi antenna for mobile application. Originally, from a small town in New Delhi and I am applying to this program because I know that there is something else out here and I am not quite sure what it is but I know there is something else out here and I want to reach out as far as I can while I have the opportunity. There are two things about this program that the first are the diversity of the institutes. The second thing is a small class of with truly outstanding facilities members where you are getting to share own thoughts about particular texts or particular issues with someone who is literally the world expert in a field and people within your own age range. The environment is very creative and in which it has all the facilities available to be able to move on and progress with ideas that I have created. COSI Program designed the course to provide an understanding and the hands-on skills necessary to perform Image Processing which covers human visual system, imaging devices, image system feature extraction and pattern recognition which include face recognition, spectral image processing and to leverage the talent within a cooperation. It further gives me the opportunity to apply powerful tools such as digital imaging, including optics, vision and computation; statistical interference and modelling, interactive data analytics, spectral and colorimetric reproduction, 2D and 3D spatial model to a particular field of business and also provide practical skills and internship that match my aspirations and provide the network with students from famous international schools. COSI is one of the key techno-logic drives of the 21ST century and it is at heart of almost everything that we consider to be modern. The core curriculum is really a collection of courses in a variety of disciplines that is designed to introduce postgraduates to a whole array of intellectual activity. The University of Eastern Finland has very active service learning program here students are learning by working on projects that are usually focused on the community and has some sort of social good to it. It also offers different kinds of the student body resonating with the energy of the city and to the rigor of the curriculum and that’s the potent combination I think that’s from my point of view whats different and special about this institution. I believe I deserve to be select for the scholarship because that indicates hardworking student and I have worked very hard to my undergraduate degree and have proven I can excel both in college and in life as well. I have taken rigorous coursework throughout all my undergraduate year. Also, I am highly involved in the extracurricular activity at my college and also involved in the community. I have played various varsity sports at my school level. I have also owned various medals and honors while in the college. The most significant achievement of my life was a selection at the SMART INDIA HACKATHON GRAND FINALE 2017 (WORLD BIGGEST MOVEMENT)- developed project as a team at Udaipur to prevent delay in trains due to fog in winters under Ministry of Railways, Government of India. I also received congratulations letter from Hon’ble Education Minister Mr. PRAKASH JAVADEKAR (MHRD) Government of India for being a part of the great digital movement as a volunteer in the transformation of our country from cash-based society to cashless society. I am also a member of MIT-ClimateX. It is an online space where people from the MIT community could share their knowledge and ideas about climate change with the outside world. I occasionally volunteer for the Rivers for Rally- the nationwide awareness campaign to revive the rivers of India and various other local organizations their primary goal is to mold students into leaders. I use my leadership status to motivate others to follow their dreams as well. I would commit myself to take advantage efficiently of the opportunity that the scholarship will provide me besides. I hope to become one of your scholarship students so I can devote myself more to community service activity and can continue on my pathway to reach my career goal.
Final AssignmentAviation fuel is quickly becoming the fastest growing contributor to climate change, as it accounts for around 2% of global carbon emissions and if nothing is implemented, may rise to 6% by 2050. Along with the number of passengers expected to grow from 200 million to 500 million a year by 2030, carbon emissions can be expected to double due to more flights due to the increase. However, other modes of transport like buses and cars, and also the industrial sectors and the power sectors are expected to reduce their carbon emissions due to tough laws on fuel and tax. In this essay I will argue for both sides of the argument regarding the input of tax on fuel for air transportation.There is the Convention on International Civil Aviation, which is also known as the Chicago Convention. It regulates and coordinates air travel. A document was signed on December 7th, 1994 and has been revised eight times, the most recent being in 2006. As of 2013, the Chicago Convention has 191 state parties which follow this agreement. Article 24 of this agreement says ‘any aircrafts flying to, from or across the territory of a state shall be admitted temporarily free of duty’. This includes fuel, oil, and spare parts. After WW2, most countries extended this to all aviation fuel. This agreement will need to be reversed in order for the tax to be implemented.Firstly, the tax should be introduced because people who fill up their cars pay an average of 40p per litre of fuel when they fill up their cars, but the aviation businessmen do not pay anything when they fill up their planes with the fuel they burn. In the EU, this can lead to a shortfall of anything between €20 and €32 billion a year. Considering if there is a sharp increase of passengers, and as a result more flights and planes, more fuel will need to be used, and the cost of the tickets will have to rise significantly in order for companies to pay their fuel taxes. Currently the environmental cost of carbon emissions alone is estimated to be around $50 per ton of fuel. It would cost $20 per passenger on a flight from New York to London, and this would be added to their ticket price. In addition, this tax should be considered because the longer aviation fuel is left untaxed, the more damage to the environment will be caused. This damage is created by aircrafts emitting heat, noise and gases which contribute to climate change. Even though there are measures in place to create efficient aircrafts for less CO2 emissions, they will likely be ineffective due to the continual growth of air travel with more passengers and therefore more trips. It is important to point out that the owners do not pay any compensation for any environmental damage they may cause with their fuel emissions. Another good reason to tax fuel used in air transportation is that the people who purchase the tickets for airplanes may not actually know how much damage they are causing to the environment. One of the negative externalities of flying, the emissions, must be recognised by the people, and the only way they will notice it is if action is taken. Some argue that since the richer fly most, and nearly 80% of flights are for leisure, tax on air travel would be fair and progressive, without being harmful to the economy.Finally, it is unfair that even though no tax is received from the aviation industry. They get subsidies for infrastructure support, and in the EU they receive an average of €3 billion (£2.5 billion) a year which allows them to build more airports and open new routes and trips to different parts of the world. If you compare this to how road users in the UK pay for the road infrastructure through their fuel tax and annual car tax (which is paid by everyone), it’s clear that this system isn’t exactly fair. These companies are being allowed to pollute the world, not pay tax on their fuel and they are given large quantities of money for expanding.On the other hand, if a tax is enforced on aviation, there will be many costs and consequences. Before the tax is even enforced, there can still be issues. For example, for however long the UK stays in the EU, any move made to impose a tax will be contrary to EU law. This makes it difficult for any immediate action to be taken, but the UK can implement this tax after we leave the EU if it was considered.With every tax comes the people who will try to avoid it – this is especially true with aviation fuel tax. There is a chance that many companies will start ‘tankering’ their aircrafts, which involves carriers filling aircrafts as full as they can whenever they land outside of the EU. This means they avoid paying tax, which in turn will increase the level of emissions. This will also render the tax practically useless if everyone starts avoiding it. Other measures will need to be put in place to make sure that this cannot happen.If the tax was imposed, and this new charge was added to tickets, it could cause a decline in people using air transportation, and they may be off better money-wise by using a train or other modes of transportation. It would also cause a lot of unhappy passengers, and in desperate measures, people may even try to go to other airports in other countries just to use their airports to avoid paying the tax. People will not want to pay the extra fee on top of everything else they pay. They may also not understand why they are paying it.One group that would benefit from the taxation of aviation fuel is the government. The tax would add around £39 billion to the economy, which can then be used to support under-funded hospitals, schools and other public services, and the money collected can be used where it is needed. It could even be possible that the revenue could be used to reduce other forms of tax, or make significant improvements on public services for the benefits of the people.Another group that would benefit from this taxation would be environmentalists and possibly future generations. When we make decisions about the environment, it is important to think about our lives as well as the lives of people to come after us. The tax would hopefully discourage the use of certain fuels because of their expenses, and we could even see a rise in planes being powered by more environmentally friendly ways. This change in tax would reduce demand which would have a clear advantage on the environment, and less climate change emissions. These groups need to realise that they are not going to be exempt from climate change measures, and if this tax is the answer for them to stop polluting, then it needs to be implemented.
Experimental study of mechanical and microbial properties of spent mushroom substrate reinforced acoustic boards.PROJECT ABSTRACT:In recent decade agriculture waste in India have been generated enormously. One of the agriculture wastes is spent mushroom substrate, Mushroom is produced form rice straw bed and after the production mushroom substrate is allowed to degraded or used for gasifier. Our project is focused on using mushroom substrate and making composite board from it and using instead of plywood. Our aim is to produce low cost plywood. Mushroom substrate is pretreated and mixed with magnesium oxide in proper ratio and it is produced in hot compression molding machine. After that physical test such as tensile, compression, Three point bending test, water absorption test, wire test, Flame test, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity have been done on the sample.KEYWORDS:Spent Mushroom substrate, resin, magnesium oxide, testingLITURATURE SURVEY:Noise is one of the major air pollutants, which will have severe impact on living organisms. The world health organization (WHO) states that the continuous exposure to noise will have adverse effect on human beings in the form of hearing loss, sleep disturbance and even it affects the immune systems10, 11. In the built environment, the sources of noise is broadly classified in to two: 1) external noise intruding the rooms such as noise emanating from HVACs 2) internal or self-generated noise, for an instance noise generated from the call centers (communication area noise) 12, 13 Both internal and externally generated noise can be controlled using passive and active methods 14, 15 In passive techniques, the desired acoustical effect is achieved by using porous materials as wall and ceiling claddings for sound absorption and insulation13, 1416 In majority of the building applications, the desired acoustical environment is achieved by employing passive method so as to reduce the cost and active methods are seldom used. Nevertheless, passive medium of noise control is effective mainly for mid and higher frequency and active methods are powerful in controlling low frequency noise 17.Rockwool, glass wool and mineral wool are widely used to provide desired sound and thermal insulation inside the building18–21 However, these materials cause various health related issues such as lung diseases and skin irritations and usage of these materials are banned in many countries 21, 22. Hence, researchers and the industrialists are concentrating to develop a cost effective solution. These can be achieved by employing naturally available porous materials such as porous rocks, sands, soil on the earth surfaces, water saturated granular but they are not abundant22, 23. Therefore, researchers are developing porous materials by using different types of natural fibres obtained from plants and trees.The wood fiber extracted from Arenga pinnata was initially proposed to be an alternate to Pinus radiate, which is widely used. However, the panels made of Arenga pinnata are effective only for the frequencies between 2000- 4000 Hz 24 The absorption coefficient of these panels shows very poor sound absorption in low frequency range (less than 500 Hz) than the panels made of palm tree fiber and coir fiber. Panels made by mixing rice straw particles with wood particles were proposed by25. It showed superior sound absorption performances in higher frequencies than plywood,particle and fiber board’s 25 . Fibers extracted from durian, bamboo, eucalypt species and Indonesian Hardwood were also considered for acoustic panels and they are effective for mid to high frequencies24–27.Coir fibers extracted from coconuts are another most preferred acoustic material for its lower weight and cost 28. To achieve better sound transmission loss and maximum absorption, perforated panels should be incorporated between two coir boards28, 29. However, their availability is restricted to tropical countries and the major problem is drying of coconut fruit to extract fibre from it. Fiber extracted from largely available rain-fed crop “Jute” is used along with natural rubber to produce acoustic panels mainly for domestic and automotive applications. To our knowledge, so far rice straw was not used with minerals for building applications.Manufacturing of mineral boards blended with rice straw will reduce the carbon foot print and usage of these boards will help to develop eco- friendly buildings.Since people spend majority of their time in indoor environment, researchers mainly focus on built conditions such as thermal comfort, air quality and energy. However, the occupants of indoor exposed to various bio-aerosols which can both help and create adverse health problems to occupants30. Due to global warming, majority of the places including schools, hospitals and offices are provided with air conditioning systems which generally re circulate the air. This enhances the microbes to grow in different building materials. The microbes and cellular components causes various health related problems such as “sick building syndrome” and pulmonary diseases16. The intensity of infectious and non-infectious diseases is not only depend on the biological properties and chemical composition but also on the site of deposition on the human body16. Korpi et al., 1998 investigated the volatile organic components (VOC) excreted by various microbes at different Relative Humidity (RH) conditions. It concluded that no single microbial initiated volatile organic component (VMOC) can serve as indicator for various species present in the indoor air.These microbes not only causes health related problems but also reduces the durability and aesthetic appearance of these materials6. The first article published on microbe induced degradation on building was in the year 189031. Since then, large number of articles were published on the diversity of microorganisms causing damages to the building materials 31. To overcome these problems, anti-microbial paints dispersed with nano particles were developed. Due to the size of nano particles, it may rupture the cell walls when they interact with microorganisms32. Silver nano materials are one of the very popular nano particles suspended in anti-microbial paints and their side effects are not investigated extensively32. Although many microorganisms are isolates, to our knowledge, no anti-microbial, incorporates materials is used to treat the building materials were isolated, to our knowledge no manufacturing system utilized organic anti-microbial materials. Therefore, It is very essential to develop alternate materials and manufacturing process to utilize by agro wastes for manufacturing sustainable building materials. Moreover, it is also necessary to develop organic based antimicrobial agents for mineral boards to curtail the problems of aerosols in the built environmentMETHODOLOGY:Problem identificationLiterature surveySelection of material and resinSample FabricationTesting on environmental conditionFinal productREFERENCE:1 M. Rameshkumar, P. S. Alagirisamy, M. Sakthivel, A. Mahalingam, and R. BVA, “A Review of Building Acoustic Materials,” in acoustic 2013, 2013, pp. 107–112.2 P. Taylor, K. M. Hendry, and E. C. Cole, “Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health : Current Issues A review of mycotoxins in indoor air,” no. June 2013, pp. 37–41.3 A. Korpi, A. L. Pasanen, and P. Pasanen, “Volatile Compounds Originating from Mixed Microbial cultures on building materials under various humidity conditions,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol., vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 2914–2919, 1998.4 A. Hyvarinen, T. Meklin, A. Vepsalainen, and A. Nevalainen, “Fungi and actinobacteria in moisture-damaged building materials – Concentrations and diversity,” Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 27–37, 2002.5 K. M. Hendry and E. C.Cole, “A review of mycotoxins in indoor air,” J. Toxicol. Environ. Heal. Curr. Issues, no. June 2013, pp. 37–41, 2007.6 N. DE Belie, W. Jianyun, Wi. DE Muynck, S. M. Blanco, and I. S. Perez, “Microbial interactions with mineral building materials,” J. Chinease Ceram. Soc., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 1689–1699, 2014.7 S. Panyakaew and S. Fotios, “New thermal insulation boards made from coconut husk and bagasse,” Energy Build., 2011.8 F. Asdrubali and F. D. Alessandro, “A review of unconventional sustainable building insulation materials,” no. JUNE, 2015.9 V. Bradshaw, “Human comfort and health requirements,” Build. Environ. Act. Passiv. Control Syst., pp. 3–38, 2006.10 P. M. Rabinowitz, “Noise-induced hearing loss,” Am. Fam. Physician, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 2749–2756, 2000.11 H. Ising and B. Kruppa, “Health effects caused by noise: evidence in the literature from the past 25 years.,” Noise Health, vol. 6, no. 22, pp. 5–13, 2004.12 A. Elson, “Architectural Acoustics,” Music. Q., vol. VII, no. 4, pp. 469–482, 1921.13 T. D. Rossing and L. L. Beranek, “Handbook of Acoustics,” American Journal of Physics, vol. 77, no. 12. p. 1197, 2009.14 L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, A. B. Coppens, and J. V Sanders, “Fundamentals of acoustics,” Fundamentals of Acoustics, 4th Edition, by Lawrence E. Kinsler, Austin R. Frey, Alan B. Coppens, James V. Sanders, pp. 560. ISBN 0-471-84789-5. Wiley-VCH, December 1999., vol. 1. p. 560, 1999.15 S. J. Elliott and P. A. Nelson, “Active Noise Control,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 12–35, 1993.16 J. S. Pastuszka, U. Kyaw Tha Paw, D. O. Lis, A. Wlaz?o, and K. Ulfig, “Bacterial and fungal aerosol in indoor environment in Upper Silesia, Poland,” Atmos. Environ., vol. 34, no. 22, pp. 3833–3842, 2000.17 F. Asdrubali, S. Schiavoni, and K. Horoshenkov, A review of sustainable materials for acoustic applications, vol. 19, no. 4. 2012.18 J. Landaluze, I. Portilla, J. J. . Pagalday, A. Mart Inez, R. Reyero, A. Martinez, and R. Reyero, “Application of active noise control to an elevator cabin,” Control Eng. Pract., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1423–1431, 2003.19 J. P. Arenas and M. J. Crocker, “Recent Trends in Porous Sound-Absorbing Materials,” Sound Vib., pp. 1–6, 2010.20 K. M. Ho, Z. Yang, X. X. Zhang, and P. Sheng, “Measurements of sound transmission through panels of locally resonant materials between impedance tubes,” Appl. Acoust., 2005.21 M. J. Crocker, “Theory of Sound-Predictions and Measurement,” in Handbook of Noise and Vibration Control, 2008, pp. 17–42.22 K. Attenborough, “Acoustical characteristics of porous materials,” Physics Reports, vol. 82, no. 3. pp. 179–227, 1982.23 M. Vašina, D. C. Hughes, K. V. Horoshenkov, and L. Lap?ík, “The acoustical properties of consolidated expanded clay granulates,” Appl. Acoust., vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 787–796, 2006.24 L. Ismail, M. M. I. Ghazali, S. Mahzan, A. Mujahid, and A. Zaidi, “Sound Absorption of Arenga Pinnata Natural Fiber,” World Acad. Sci. …, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 804–806, 2010.25 X. Li, Z. Cai, J. E. Winandy, and A. H. Basta, “Selected properties of particleboard panels manufactured from rice straws of different geometries,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 101, no. 12, pp. 4662–4666, 2010.26 L. Karlinasari, H. Baihaqi, A. Maddu, and T. R. Mardikanto, “The Acoustical Properties of Indonesian Hardwood Species,” Makara J. Sci., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 110–114, 2012.27 L. Karlinasari, D. Hermawan, A. Maddu, B. Martianto, I. K. Lucky, N. Nugroho, and Y. S. Hadi, “Acoustical Properties of Particleboards Made From Betung Bamboo (Dendrocalamus Asper) As Building Construction Material,” BioResources, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 5700–5709, 2012.28 J. Khedari, N. Nankongnab, J. Hirunlabh, and S. Teekasap, “New low-cost insulation particleboards from mixture of durian peel and coconut coir,” Build. Environ., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 59–65, 2004.29 T. Koizumi, N. Tsujiuchi, and A. Adachi, “The development of sound absorbing materials using natural bamboo fibers,” 2002.30 A. J. P. Ii and L. C. Marr, “Sources of airborne microorganisms in the built environment,” Microbiome, pp. 1–10, 2015.ESTIMATEDTIME FRAME:APRILMARCH MARCHFEB FEBJANJANReport Generation Report GenerationReport GenerationReport GenerationReport GenerationReport Generation Report GenerationReport GenerationReport GenerationReport Generation Report GenerationReport GenerationReport GenerationReport GenerationTesting on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental Condition Testing on Environmental Condition Testing on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental Condition Testing on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental Condition Testing on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental Condition Testing on Environmental Condition Testing on Environmental ConditionTesting on Environmental Condition Testing on Environmental ConditionProduction Of Sample Production Of SampleProduction Of SampleProduction Of Sample Production Of SampleProduction Of Sample Production Of SampleProduction Of Sample Production Of SampleProduction Of SampleProduction Of SampleLiterature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of Resin Literature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinLiterature Survey And Selection of ResinRough budget estimation:TESTING COST FOR SAMPLES.NOTEST NAMESTANDARDSCOST01TensileEN160730000CompressionEN82910002Modulus Of RuptureEN12089100003Water Absorption & SwellingIS2380150004Smoke DensityASTME662300005Fire TestBS476 PART 5, 6,7800006Thermal ConductivityIS334610,60007Falling WeightIS15476200008FungalIS48731000009TermiteIS4833900010Impedance Tube100011Screw Hold Power200012SEM TEST400013Manufacturing Cost500014Magnesium Oxide1000TOTALRs62,100S.No.PhaseBudget Amount1Phase I100002Phase II250003Phase III27100Declaration:I, ________________________ belonging to _______________________ department is responsible for the details furnished above. The content is unique and belongs to me (us).Name of the Student: Name of the Mentor:Signature with date Signature with date
African Architecture is the architecture of the African continent expanse from north to south, from east to west, on both sides of pre-history to ancient, out-of-date to contemporary movement. African Architecture agreements by means of the creative and technological demand of African dwellings and accommodation of the human being. Most bias Eurocentric scholarship has preferred to an agreement with the original characteristic and superintend the technical and historical. Such allowance has cautiously been chosen toward an arrangement concluded the vernacular and superintends the ancient monumental architecture– tombs, walls, palaces, in the establishment of the opinion that Africa, particularly the sub-Saharan Africa lack those structure, conflicting to the accounts of European travellers, Arab buyers, and other outside visitors to the continent. Unfortunately, the main class of monumental structures in Africa are south of the Sahara, in Nigeria, Sungbo’s Eredo and the Benin Walls. Of most current growth is the unearthing of the general use of fractal projects within African art and architecture– self-similarity, in which the separate parts are the same method as that of the whole.
Furthermore, in this discussion, I will be talking about how Islam and Christianity have a heavy influence on the movement, architecture predominate among the visual arts, throughout, the debate I will be being the wild elements to the characteristic and materiality within the African Architecture,
Through the whole of the debate it shows African Architecture Vernacular Architecture, as the movement displays trial and error, as we all evolve, Vernacular Architecture reveals a great range of human behaviour and atmosphere, principal to differing building methods for practically every single diverse context; even neighbouring communities might have faintly diverse methods to the construction and usage of their dwellings, even if they at first give the impression if the same. Notwithstanding these differences, each structure is an issue to the same laws of physics and henceforward will demonstrate noteworthy comparisons in structural procedures.
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Load Balancing on Virtual Machines Using Ant Colony Optimization In Cloud Seminar Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree ofMaster of Engineering Computer Science and Engineering Submitted ByName: Jasleen Kaur(Roll No. 801632014)Under the supervision of: Dr. Neeraj Kumar Associate Professor,Computer Science and Engineering DepartmentDr. Mukesh SinghAssociate ProfessorElectrical and Instrumentation Engineering Department,COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTTHAPAR UNIVERSITY PATIALA – 147004December 2017 CERTIFICATEI hereby certify that the matter which is being presented in the seminar report titled, “Seminar topic”, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of Master of Engineering Computer Science and Engineering submitted in Computer Science and Engineering Department of Thapar University, Patiala, is a survey carried out by me. Name : Jasleen Kaur Roll No. 801632014 ME(CS) ABSTRACT The development of the internet has given birth to many technologies. Cloud computing is a latest trend in large scale data processing. It aids in providing shared resources. It gives support to the distributed parallel processing. However, providing an efficient response time is a major challenging issue in the distributed systems. Cloud computing provides data on the pay per use basis and eliminates the need of having one’s own device. As cloud computing grows, more users get attracted towards it. Lesser response time is needed for distributed computing and effective load balancing is one of the major issues that can improve response time. Improving the dynamic nature of load balancing algorithms in order to improve the performance of the cluster is the first and foremost requirement. In the proposed algorithm, load balancing is done by using Ant Colony Algorithm. Probability calculation is done by considering hardware parameters including CPU utilization and bandwidth utilization which helps to avoid the overloading and under loading of Virtual Machines. Algorithm is executed on cloud analyst. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all I would like to thank the Almighty, who has always guided me to work on the right path of the life. This work would not have been possible without the encouragement and able guidance of my supervisor Dr. Neeraj Kumar and Dr. Mukesh Singh I thank my supervisor for her time, patience, discussions and valuable comments. Her enthusiasm and optimism made this experience both rewarding and enjoyable.I am also thankful to the entire faculty and staff members of Computer Science Department, Thapar University, for their direct-indirect help, cooperation, love and affection.Last but not the least, I would like to thank my parents for their wonderful love and encouragement, without their blessings none of this would have been possible. I would also like to thank my close friends for their constant support. LIST OF CONTENTS PAGE NO. Certificate iAbstract iiAcknowledgement iiiTable of Contents ivList of Figures viList of Tables viiiChapter 1. Introduction 11.1. Introduction to Cloud Computing 11.1.1. Advantages of Cloud Computing 21.2. Introduction to Load Balancing 31.2.1. Load Balancing Algorithms 31.3. Ant Colony Optimization 51.3.1. Applications of ACO algorithm in various problems 6Chapter 2. Literature Survey 72.1. Related Work 7Chapter 3. Status of the Work 93.1. Status 93.1.1 Experimental Results 9Chapter 4. Conclusion and Future Scope 134.1. Conclusion 134.2. Future Scope 13References 14 LIST OF FIGURES PAGE NO. Figure 1.1: Cloud Computing 1Figure 3.1: Comparison between Load Balancing Policies 10Figure 3.2: Round Robin Load Balancer 11Figure 3.3: Equally Spread Current Execution Load Balancer 11Figure 3.4: Throttled Load Balancer 11Figure 3.5: Ant Colony Load Balancer 12Figure 3.6: Response time analysis 12 LIST OF TABLES PAGE NO. Table 1: Comparison of various Load Balancing Algorithms 4Table 2: Comparative Analysis of Various Ant Colony Optimization 7Table 3: Parameters used for Execution 9 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. Introduction to Cloud ComputingCloud computing is the ability of using various computing resources through the internet including applications and storage services. The shared pool of the resources is hosted by the cloud provider. According to the National Institute of Standard and Technology 1, Cloud Computing is defined as a model for providing convenient and on demand access to the shared pool of resources including networks, storage, services etc. These services require minimal effort. The main attribute of the cloud computing is the elasticity, means its tendency to grow and reduce the computation as per the requirements 2. The other attribute is it is scalable, means its ability to balance the increased demands of the CPU storage, bandwidth etc. Cloud Computing provides the secure access to the applications as shown in the Figure. Figure 1.1: Cloud Computing 3 To meet the user needs, Cloud Computing provides the virtual environment. It is based on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to provide hardware support and it moves the data, processing and service delivery away from the desktop transform to the data centers 5. The main aim of the cloud computing is to make use of the distributed resources to increase the overall throughput.1.1.1. Advantages of Cloud ComputingI. Ease in management- A person needs only internet connection and the web browser to access the services without the need for installing any other application for the computation. The maintenance of the infrastructure requires less time and the cost. The applications can also make easier access to the storage services through the cloud.II. Reduction in the cost- It reduces the cost because costly infrastructure does not require here- Most of the applications deployed on the cloud does not need any man power and can be setup freely like emails, Google Apps. Also these applications are reliable and the main advantage of such applications is availability.III. No interruption in the services- Cloud computing provides uninterrupted services to the user 6.IV. Disaster Management- Cloud computing is also efficient in the disaster recovery. Keeping the backup of an important data is need of the organizations. An offsite backup is helpful to recover the data. Cloud storage not only keep the back up of the data offsite but also ensures that they have system provided for disaster recovery in terms of the failure.V. Green Computing- Energy consumption is the main concern in the today scenario including electronic waste with the advancement in time, extensive use of the system resources. This can be reduced with the help of the cloud computing to some extent. Less e-waste generated results in environment preserving.VI. Easy to scale- The cloud resources are managed by the software and thus if new requirement arises then it is easy to scale up the cloud. The scalability process can be done in less time. Similarly the resources can also scale down with the requirements.1.2. Introduction to Load BalancingLoad Balancing is a technique to distribute the workload across various nodes, or other resources like central processing units, network links, etc. The main aim is to achieve efficient resource utilization, increase in the throughput, decrease the response time and minimize the overhead. It also helps to achieve the fairly distribution of the workload.Cloud load balancing: Cloud load balancing is the process of distributing workloads across multiple computing resources in a cloud computing environment. To balance load distribution, we can migrate the load from the heavy loaded nodes to the comparatively lightly loaded destination nodes.The load balancing is achieved by the relevant hardware/software, for example multilayer switch helps in load balancing. It is also one main issue of cloud computing as there may occur a situation in which some nodes are busy and at the same time some nodes are idle. So this increases the overall response time. A mechanism is needed to ensure that the workload across the nodes is evenly distributed. Different algorithms are there to serve the efficient load balancing.1.2.1. Load Balancing AlgorithmsBasically load balancing algorithms are divided into two types i.e Static an Dynamic Algorithms.a) Static Load Balancing AlgorithmsThe static load balancing algorithms are based on the prior knowledge of the properties of the nodes and its ability to process the new requests. This also includes the processing power of the node. This only takes into consideration the static properties of the node and is not adaptable to any changes.b) Dynamic Load Balancing AlgorithmsDynamic load balancing algorithms depend on the run-time information collected of the selected nodes. In this approach, workload is assigned and may reassign to the nodes based on the computation. These algorithms also require continuous monitoring of the tasks. This is also more accurate approach of load balancing in comparison with the static approach.a. Comparison of various Load Balancing AlgorithmsTable 1 shows the comparison with various Load Balancing Algorithms. This table covered various advantages and limitations of these algorithms.Techniques Advantages LimitationsRound Robin It selects the first node randomly and then allocates jobs to all other nodes in a round robin manner Some nodes might be heavily loaded and some are not. Since the running time of any process is not known prior to execution, there is a possibility that nodes may get heavily loaded.Weighted Round Robin In this algorithm, a weight is assigned to each node and depends on the weight, the requests are processed. As precise prediction of execution time is not possible, therefore this algorithm isn’t preferred.Ant Colony Optimization 7 • Under loaded node is found at the beginning of the search• It is Decentralized, so there is no single point of failure.• Ants can collect the information faster. • Due to large number of ants, network may be congested.• The status of the nodes after the ant’s visit is not taken into consideration.Load Balancing Min-Min (LBMM) 11 Job with the smallest time is executed first. The drawback of this algorithm is that some jobs may experience starvation.Honeybee Foraging Behavior 12 Achieves global Load Balancing through local server and used for large scale cloud systems. The computation of profit may cause an additional overhead which results in overall decrease in the throughput. Equally Spread Active Execution (ESAE) algorithm 13 In the ESAE algorithm, as the tasks are submitted, they are queued. If the task size and the size of the virtual machine match, the job is assigned. This is done by the job scheduler based on the priority. Power consumption caseIsn’t considered.Weighted Least Connection (WLC) 14 It finds out the node with the least number of the connections. If the node with the least number of connections is found, the task is assigned to it. It does not takes into consideration important factors including the processing speed, bandwidth etc.Throttled Algorithm15 Assign the workload on the virtual machines for effective resource utilization Failed to distribute load uniformly, overloading initial VMs and leaving others underutilized.1.3. Ant Colony Optimization Ant Colony Optimization is basic foraging behavior of an ant that encouraged them to find the optimal shortest path from their nest to food introduced by Dorigo. M .When ants are moving from their nest to food or vice versa they deposit a chemical substance called pheromone on their path. Paths are randomly chosen by ants initially. Chance of an isolated ant to follow a particular path among several possibilities always based on previously laid trail .High concentrated pheromone helps an ant to choose a path and more ants are also attracted due to this high pheromone. By this way trail are reinforced with its own pheromone. Probability of an ant can separate the best optimal path from different set of paths is proportion to the concentration of way’s pheromone. As a result denser pheromone attracts more ants. It’s a basically positive feedback mechanism that helps ants to find an optimal path finally.1.3.1 Application of ACO algorithm in various problems1. Travelling salesman problems2. Quadratic assignment problems3. Scheduling problems4. Vehicle routing problems5. Sequential ordering problems6. Shortest common super sequence7. problems8. Graph coloring problems9. Frequency assignment problems10. Bin packing and multi-knapsack problems11. Constraint satisfaction problems Chapter2 LITERATURE SURVEY 2.1. Related Work Table2 Comparative Analysis of Various Ant Colony Optimization Title Purpose Techniques Used Advantages DisadvantagesCloud task Scheduling based on Load balancing ACO.6 To minimize the task completion time that are distributed among different virtual Machines. Load BalancingACO Algorithm is used to find the optimal resourceallocation for each task in dynamic cloudsystem. 1. Nodes are balancedDynamically.2. LBMM Balanced the entire system whether the entire task are the same or not that can handle all type of conditions. 1. The task aremutually independent as No precedenceconstraints betweendifferent task.2. The task areComputationallyintensive which isnot realistic for cloudsystem.3. It is not Heterogeneity of system.Load balancing ofnode in cloudusing Ant colonyoptimization(ACO)7. 1. Aim is to Efficiently distribution of load among nodes such that ant never dead.2.It provide the bettersynchronization of ants.3. It is best case thatfinds the node is underloaded or not. 1.Centralized approach . Ant Collect the information faster.2.Two types movement of ant that is forward movement and backward movement. 1. It gives optimumsolution of load.2. It is centralizedno single point of failure .3. the ant updatedthe single result setrather thanupdating their own result set. It iscompiled only onceduration ofmovement of ant 1. Network overheadbecause of the largenumber of ants2. Points of initiationof ants and numberof ants are not clear3. Nodes statuschange after antsvisits to them is notaken into account4..full replication ofdataDynamic Load Balancing Strategy for Cloud Computing with Ant Colony Optimization8. 1.Present anovel approach on load balancing via ant colony optimization (ACO), for balancing theworkload in a cloud computing platform dynamically. Two strategies, forward-backward ant mechanism and max-min rules, are introduced to quickly find out the candidate nodes forload balancing. Better speed of convergence and canbe used in the cloud computing platform with a huge number of slave nodes. 1.Overhead increases.Effective SchedulingAlgorithm for Loadbalancing using AntColony Optimizationin Cloud Computing.9 1.To develop an effective load balancing algorithmusing ACO . 1.SchedulingAlgorithm for LoadBalancing(SALB) 1.Efficient to finding the overloaded node in minimum time.2. To balance the node with efficiency and maximum utilization ofresources. 1.Less performance(canbe increased by varyingdifferent parameters)Cloud computinginitiative usingmodified ACOFramework.10 To minimize the make span (throughput ofheterogeneouscomputing system) . Based onheuristics algorithmuses modified ACO. The main modification in pheromoneFormula. 1.Better utilizationof resources.2. It is not dynamic in nature.3.Probability ofservicing the request also has been converged using modified Scheduling. 1. Fault tolerance isnot good.2. overheadIncreases.Chapter 3 STATUS OF THE WORK In cloud computing, there is an issue regarding overloading of the tasks due to the random arrival of the tasks. Due to the random utilization of the CPU, resources are sometimes heavily loaded whereas the other resources are idle. Load Balancing is a way to distribute the entire load over the network across a large number of virtual machines or CPU. This helps to achieve the balanced utilization which maximizes the performance and minimizes the response time. So there is an important issue to balance the load efficiently among the resources.3.1. Status of the Work• Up to now we have setup the CloudSim environment and Cloud Analyst with Eclipse IDE and common math library has been integrated.• Creation of Data centre, assigning properties, creation of Virtual machines, hosts, cloudlets has been simulated using system given classes.• The inbuilt broker object is invoked which is responsible for assignment of cloudlets into VMs.• The default allocation policies are being examined.• Ant Colony Optimization algorithm implementation.3.1.1. Experimental Results Following is the cloudsim based toolkit parameters configured for the execution of the algorithm as shown in Table 3.Number of Datacenter 1Architecture X86Operating System LinuxVMM XenAvailable Bandwidth per VM 1000Number of Virtual machines in a datacenter 8Data size per request (in bytes) 10000Number of requests 60Image Size 10000Physical Hardware Units 4Instruction length per request(in bytes) 10000Memory per Host(in Mb) 2048Storage per Host(in Mb) 100000Bandwidth per Host(in Mbits/sec) 100000Table 3: Parameters used for executionTo test the efficiency of the ACO algorithm, it is compared with the other algorithms using cloud analyst tool. Cloud analyst tool is an extension to the cloudsim. Screenshot of the existing algorithms in the tool has shown in the Figure3.1. Figure 3.1: Comparison between Load Balancing Policies Round robin processes the request by selecting the virtual machines randomly and then the workload gets allocated in the circular manner. However it doesn?t consider the processing time. A request has to wait in queue if no virtual machine is available. So, this increases the overall response time. Response time of this algorithm with the assigned configuration has shown in the Figure.3.2. Figure 3.2: Round Robin Load BalancerEqually Spread current Execution distributes the workload equally to all the virtual machines. So in this way equal numbers of the tasks are assigned to each virtual machine. No virtual machine is underutilized. Figure 3.3 shows the response time execution of this algorithm with the configuration as shown in the Table 3. Figure 3.3: Equally Spread Current Execution Load BalancerThrottled algorithm assigns the workload uniformly to the virtual machines. It takes care of the predefined amount of the tasks are allocated to the virtual machine. Figure3.4 shows the response time execution of this algorithm with the configuration as shown in the Table 3. Figure 3.4: Throttled Load Balancer An Ant Colony algorithm is implemented in cloudsim and its toolkit. This algorithm takes care of the different hardware parameters of the virtual machines. So a Probability value is calculated based on the hardware parameters. The result shows that response time has improved as shown in Figure 3.5. Figure 3.5: Load Balancing based on Resource Utilization Figure 3.6: Response Time AnalysisThe comparison between round robin, equally spread current execution, throttled, and Ant colony algorithm has shown in the Figure 3.6. From the analysis of the results, it is proved that the proposed algorithm has better response time as compared to the other algorithms. So this algorithm is response time efficient. Chapter 4 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE 4.1.ConclusionThe existing work considered several load balancing techniques that manage the load distribution among various virtual machines and assigns load corresponding to their priority and states. There is an issue of overloading which means the resources may be over utilized and hence there increases the response time. There is also an issue of under loading means the resources may underutilize and hence there may increase in the power consumption. According to the ACO Algorithm, the workload is distributed to the virtual machine based on Pheromone valueof virtual machines. The analysis of the results shows that response time of the algorithm is reduced as compared to the other algorithms. 4.2.Future ScopeIn future, the load balancing can be more dynamic and efficient by making some changes in the already implemented ACO algorithm .During the work also try to overcome the problem of fault tolerance which is also an issue in cloud computing. REFERENCES1 P. Mell and T. Grance, “The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing”, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Sept. 2011.2 E. J. Qaisar, “Introduction to Cloud Computing for Developers: Key concepts, the players and their offerings”, in proc. of IEEE Information Technology Professional Conference (TCF Pro IT), pp. 1-6, 2012.3 M. B. Mollah, K. R. Islam and S. S. Islam, “Next Generation of Computing through Cloud Computing Technology”, in proc. of 25th IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE), pp.1-6, 2012.4 J. Harauz, L. M. Kaufinan and B. Potter, “Data Security in the World of Cloud Computing”, in proc. of IEEE Security & Privacy, co published by IEEE Computer and Reliability Societies, pp. 61-64, July 2009.5 M. D. Dikaiakos, G. Pall, et al. “Cloud computing: Distributed Internet Computing for IT and Scientific Research”, in proc. of IEEE Internet Computing, pp. 10-13, 2009.6 Kun Li, Gaochao Xu, Guangyu Zhao, Yushuang Dong, Dan Wang, “Cloud Task scheduling based on Load Balancing Ant Colony Optimization”, 2011 Sixth Annual China Grid Conference, 978-0-7695- 4472-4/11, 2011 IEEE.7 N. Kumar, P. Sharma, et al. “Load Balancing of Nodes in Cloud Using Ant Colony Optimization”, in IEEE proc. of 14th International Conference on Modeling and Simulation, pp. 3-8, 2012. 8 http://www.mdpi.com/1999-5903/7/4/465.9 Shagufta Khan, Niresh Sharma, “Effective Scheduling Algorithm for Load balancing using Ant Colony Optimization in Cloud Computing”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Volume 4, Issue 2, February 2014.10 Soumya Banerjee, Indrajit Mukherjee, and P.K. Mahanti, “Cloud computing initiative using modified ACO framework”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology Vol:3 2009-08-27. 11 S. Wang, K. Yan, W. Liao and S. Wang, “Towards a load balancing in a three- level cloud computing network,” in the proc. of IEEE 3rd International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology (ICCSIT), pp. 108-113, July 2010. 12 M. Randles, D. Lamb and A. Bendiab, “Experiments with Honeybee Foraging Inspired Load Balancing”, in IEEE proc. of 2nd International Conference on Developments in eSystems Engineering(DESE), pp. 240-247, 2009. 13 J. kaur, “Comparison of load balancing algorithms in a Cloud”, in International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), vol. 2, issue 3, pp. 169-173, 2012. 14 R. Lee and B. Jeng, “Load-balancing tactics in cloud,” in IEEE proc. of International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery (CyberC), pp. 447-454, October 2011. 15 M. Sharma and P. Sharma, “Efficient Load Balancing Algorithm in VM Cloud Environment”, M.Tech. Dissertation, Information Technology Department, Dharmsinh Desai University, 2012.
of Food and Beverage in Hotel Industry
and Beverage service outlets in a Hotel 3
A) Restaurants. 4
Types of restaurants in a Hotel: 4
FINE DINING RESTAURANT. 5
2) Importance of F & B Department in a hotel 7
The hotel industry is a within the
service industry that includes lodging, restaurants, event planning, theme
park, transportation, cruise line, and additional fields within the tourism industry.
Food and Beverage service is the
culmination of the planning and production processes. It centers on the guest –
more specifically, on providing and enjoyable experience for the guest. Food
and Beverage is a complex subject, comprising a wide range of characteristics,
activities and procedures. Characteristics include such things as the size and
tide if the operation, the type of service with offers, and it ambience or
atmosphere. Activities includes transferring food and beverage products from
production personnel to serving personnel, serving the guest, clearing the
table and so on,. Procedures to carry out each activity should be standardized
so that first expectation maybe met or exceeded time after time.
1) Food and Beverage service outlets in a Hotel
Fast food outlets, transport catering contract
catering of industries and so on, are examples of commercial catering. It can
be further classifying into residential, for example, hotels, motels, resorts,
inns, clubs and so on, and non residential for example restaurants, fast food
outlets, popular restaurants, pubs, bars and so on.
Hotels provide food and
beverage services to customers in the following areas other than accommodation:
§ Lounge area
Most guests stay in hotels are on
business trips and stay for the very short duration and expect quick service.
They may also need banquet halls to hold functions, conferences and business
meetings. The restaurant of hotels may offer buffet for all three meals to
speed up service. Alternately guests may place orders from the a la carte menu.
Food and Beverage service may also be extended to guests who are not staying in
Restaurant in a hotel provide food and
beverage on a commercial basis. This is open to all to take refreshments, food
and beverage.Restaurant offer service of food and beverage desires to satisfy
Types of restaurants in a Hotel:
o SPECIALTY RESTAURANT
It serves specialty dishes which are its
strength and contribute to the brand image. It operates during luncheon and
dinner hours, between noon and 3pm and between 7pm and 11pm. The ambience and décor
of the restaurant reflect the team of specialty restaurant may specialize in a
particular type of food Such as fish and chips, pasta or steak or in a
particular type of cuisine, for example Indian, Chinese, Italian And so on. The
dishes of a particular region or a country or a particular sect of people are
also termed as ethnic cuisine. The uniform of the service staff will be
according to the tradition of the region or country. The fixtures, designs on
the crockery and the menu card, music and so on, will also depict the region. Uniformed
waitstaff serves food according to the tradition. The seat torn on in this type
Of restaurants is low and the average per cover is more compared to
FINE DINING RESTAURANT
This kind of restaurant primarily caters
to the requirement of the affluent market segment which wants to experience fine
dining. The restaurant may either offer dishes of one particular region orcountry
or exotic dishes from various cuisines, wines, spirits, and digestives. It is
open mostly during dinner time. However, it may also operate during luncheon
depending on the location. The ambience and décor of the restaurant will be
elegant and rich. The furniture is made of teak wood with fine craftsmanship. The
dining chair may have arm rest. All the tables will be covered with good
quality linen and napkins of contrasting color or color that matches the décor will
be folded and kept. The glassware chosen will be of fine lead crystal communicating
to the guest the beauty of the table set – up. The metal chosen for cutlery
will be either silver or electroplated nickel silver (EPNS), which will be
maintained well at all times. The wait staff employed is skilled and has a
sound knowledge of the dishes served. The restaurant employs sommeliers to
serve wines and other and other alcoholic beverages. Uniformed service staff
serves the dishes either by silver service or by gueridon service. In
silver service, the food is transferred to the guest’s plate using service
spoon and fork from the food container. Gueridon service is also known
as trolley service, in which the food is either prepared, carved, or flambéed
in the presence of the guest on a trolley. These services call for highly
skilled staff. The average revenue generated per cover is more compared to
other restaurants but at the same time the seat turnover is very low while the
labor cost and overhead are at a higher side.
Lounges can be found in most of the
hotels where food and drinks is offered to the customers in a comfortable and
cozy seating in relaxed surrounding. Lounge in a lobby, cocktail lounge, cigar
lounge and other types of lounges can be seen in hotels which will enhance the
satisfaction of customers by giving them space to decide what they want from
what is available.
is a place where both alcoholic and non alcoholic beverages are served
depending on the type of bar. The service in bar are fast and quick. Different
kinds of bars such as club bard, pool bars, wine bars, cocktail bars, juice
bars and many more can be seen in hotels.
2) Importance of F & B Department in a hotel
Food and Beverage
Department (F) is responsible for maintaining high quality of food and
service, food costing, managing restaurants, bars, etc.
Food and Beverage Service is the service of Food made in the Kitchen and Drinks
prepared in the Bar to the Customers (Guest) at the Food & Beverage
premises, which can be:
Restaurants, Bars, Hotels, Airlines, Cruise Ships, Trains, Companies, Schools,
Colleges, Hospitals, Prisons, Takeaway, etc
provide food and beverage services to customers in the following areas other
than accommodation: Restaurants Bars Lounge area Banquets Rooms Most guests
stay in hotels are on business trips and stay for the very short duration and
expect quick service.
Food and Beverage in Hotel Industry Introduction The hotel industry is a within
the service industry that includes lodging, restaurants, event planning, theme
park, transportation, cruise line, and additional fields within the tourism
dunia itu luas…
terjatuh dari langit-langit kamar yang terbuat dari lembaran-lembaran kayu
lapuk. Aku mendarat persis di
tengah-tengah lutut seorang perempuan yang sedang tertidur dengan posisi badan
telentang. Sesekali kudengar ia mendengkur, seperti seekor Naga
yang tertidur panjang dalam gua
keabadian. Malam memang telah larut, tapi balon lampu yang masih terang-menyala
membuatku masih bisa mondar-mandir sebagai makhluk yang kehilangan arah.
dituntun oleh cahaya aurora, seluruh kutub-kutub jiwaku
diselimuti oleh adrenalin yang menyala. Kurasa kulit lembut dari perempuan itu
tidak cukup untuk melampiaskan kekesalan atas bentuk yang harus kuperankan
sebagai makhluk kecil, yang dalam banyak hal, dianggap tidak punya arti sama
belum ada yang menyadari kehadiranku, lebih baik aku mencari sesuatu yang bisa
memuaskan naluriku. Dari lutut, aku berjalan entah kemana, kurasa kakiku
menyentuh banyak permukaan, kasar, halus, datar, dan sesekali berlubang. Aku
melewati sebuah tanjakan, dan beberapa lipatan kain sebelum berhenti untuk
memastikan bahwa tempat itu cukup aman dari gerakan yang mematikan.
sepertinya memang aman…
Aku memperhatikan sekelilingku dan
akhirnya bisa kupastikan kalau aku sedang berada di bagian pinggang perempuan
itu. Aku mulai merasakan ada sesuatu yang indah di sana,
sesuatu yang indah untuk dilekati dengan perasaan.
aku sedang berada di kaki bianglala surga dunia.”
sini aku akan membuang nelangsa, akan kubesarkan jiwaku meski raga yang
menopangnya sangat kecil.”
penciumanku mulai menangkap wangi yang sangat khas, mirip wangi kasturi yang
dengan sekejap bisa mengubah rasa hambarku menjadi bongkahan selera yang
menggunung. Meski mataku hanya menangkap benda-benda raksasa yang membosankan,
tapi aku yakin di balik itu ada setitik manis yang bisa memberiku kenikmatan.
Perlahan namun sangat pasti, wangi itu menuntunku pada sebuah tempat yang
semakin indah untuk dijelajahi. Tidak salah lagi, aku masuk di saku rok mini
perempuan itu. Di dalamnya ada surga, aku rela hidup seabad di sana.
permen buatan luar negeri. Meski gelap karena tertutup kain, tapi aku bisa
menikmatinya dengan beberapa gigitan. Bukankah rasa bisa mengalahkan
penglihatan. Aku terus melubangi plastik tipis yang membungkusnya dengan dua
batang gigiku, yang meskipun kecil, namun senantiasa menjadi senjata ampuh
untuk melawan setiap rintangan di kehidupanku, sampai aku mendapati isi yang
sempurna lalu mengisapnya. Aku meneguk manis yang memabukkan.
aku akan betah, setidaknya untuk beberapa putaran waktu, tak
peduli apa yang terjadi di luar sana.”
adalah semut betina yang kesepian. Aku terlempar dari pegunungan. Aku terseret
oleh air bah. Aku dimuntahkan oleh bocah lelaki yang
ingusan. Aku terusik dan terusir oleh zat-zat kimia yang disemprotkan oleh
tukang kebun dan penjaga taman. Tapi manis permen itu akan kukenang sebagai hal
yang paling sejati, dalam hidupku yang sangat singkat.
dan kesenangan memang hampir tak punya batas. Kalau
pun ada, mungkin hanya setipis ari yang
dengan mudah dirobek hanya dengan goresan kuku atau sebatang lidi.
kisahku kepada iblis yang terbahak-bahak setelah mencabuli semua keyakinan para
manusia, pada malaikat yang mulai jenuh mendengar setiap ungkapan pilu dari
makhluk-makhluk kecil sepertiku, dan juga pada siapa saja yang mau belajar
tanpa harus bertanya siapa yang akan
masih berada dalam saku perempuan itu…
tidak merasa kalau waktu sedang bergeser detik demi detik, kenikmatan menjalar
di semua bagian tubuhku. Tiba-tiba sebuah jemari dengan kuku tajam, bercat pink
dan sedikit tajam menelusup menghampiriku. Ia seperti badai tsunami yang bisa
memporak-porandakan bangunan rumah dan peradabanku. Beruntung aku bisa
menyelamatkan diri, tapi sial, jemari itu merampas permen yang
berganti dengan resah. Mungkin aku harus kembali ke titik nol.
tidak ada alasan untuk tinggal dalam kegelapan tanpa kepastian. Mata dan
telingaku boleh dibatasi, tapi insting ditambah sisa-sisa tekad yang masih
menyala, meski kian redup, membuatku terus memanjat sampai mencapai puncak yang
terperanjat melihat perubahan di depan mataku. Kurasa aku berada dalam
imajinasi seorang pesulap hebat yang bisa merekayasa kenyataan dan perspektif
dalam waktu yang sama sekali tidak kurasakan.
lampu menjadi matahari yang bersinar ramah, langit-langit kamar menjelma
menjadi angkasa biru tanpa batas, kasur dan bantal menjadi hamparan tanah yang
ditumbuhi aneka rumput dan bunga-bungaan. Sementara perempuan yang tadinya
berbaring sendiri, kini sedang duduk dan becerita dengan seorang lelaki.
dari panggung pengalamanku akan kututup dengan membuka tirai pengalaman
selanjutnya. Apa yang sedang dibicarakan oleh mereka tidak menjadi hal yang
penting dalam duniaku. Nenek moyangku pernah mengatakan kalau etika dan
kehormatan tidak untuk dibahas sampai tenggorokan mengering, tapi cukup
ditegakkan dengan tindakan.
aku masih butuh betis perempuan itu, akan kutitipkan perjalanan selanjutnya
padanya. Aku segera memanjat. Terasa halus, betisnya tak berbulu. Ia seperti
kilat yang sangat cepat. Bila suatu saat aku bertemu dengan ibuku, pasti akan
kuceritakan semua hal yang sempat kulihat dan kurasakan. Selama ini ibuku hanya
sering bercerita tentang solidaritas.
yang besarnya ribuan kali lipat dari ukuran tubuh kita akan takluk bila kita
bisa saling menguatkan. Kita tidak perlu bertanya tentang siapa yang akan mati
dan tetap hidup di akhir perjuangan kelak, karena yang kita butuhkan adalah
pengakuan, entah dalam keadaan mati atau hidup. Perasaan kita tak perlu
dicerai-beraikan, sebab nama kita hanya satu. Nama itulah kehormatan kita. Kita
akan abadi di dinding-dinding, di balik bebatuan atau diruang-ruang dapur para
itu pergi meninggalkan lelakinya. Cengkraman kakiku harus lebih kuat agar aku
tidak terjatuh dan terinjak oleh kaki-kaki yang tak punya mata. Dari betis, aku
kembali ke rok mini perempuan itu.
saat kemudian, rok mini sebagai labirinku dilepas. Lalu aku terangtung pada
dinding bercat hijau yang banyak dihiasi dengan gambar-gambar lelaki yang
berotot besar. Mungkin perempuan itu akan mandi sebab wangi farfumnya mulai terganti
dengan bau keringat yang kurang menarik.
dugaanku ternyata salah…
yang tadi menemaninya di taman tiba-tiba muncul dari balik pintu kamar dan
langsung mengambil tempat di sisi perempuan itu. Aku menjadi teringat dengan
sepasang anjing binal yang penah kutemui di pinggiran hutan yang sunyi.
Sesekali kudengar suara mereka mendesah dengan nafas yang memburu.
dengan etika yang tak punya ukuran jelas.
ini kita mengukurnya lewat kedalam rasa.
tersenyum puas, sebelum lelaki itu pergi dengan langkah yang sedikit gontai.
Dan aku juga harus pergi, ini bukan sesuatu yang menarik. Apa yang kulihat tak
seindah gambaranku tentang kehebatan makhluk yang bernama manusia. Kuharap ada
makhluk yang bisa mengantarku pada pemandangan yang lebih indah.
memang tak sia-sia…
kucing jantan membawaku di sebuah ruang makan dimana sebuah keluarga membentuk
kolaborasi dan konfigurasi. Ruangan itu kelihatan sempurna, mirip puri istana
yang dihuni oleh raja serta kerabat-kerabtnya.
makan, diiringi gesekan biola)
Ayah : Kini tiba saatnya
kita menggantikan cerita dari generasi-generasi yang telah hilang atau
setidaknya telah usang tergerus jaman. Senyum kita akan menggantikan wangi
cendana yang akan segera punah oleh kebringasan para penjarah hutan. Kita akan
menyelami samudera kehidupan untuk mendapatkan keutuhan yang telah karam di
dasar Atlantik sana.
Ibu : Wajibkah itu
kita lakukan, tidakkah itu nantinya membawa kita pada resiko besar, kita akan
menjadi tumbal keeogisan dunia. Mengapa kita harus menjadi
pengganti, mengapa kita tidak menjadi penerus atas cerita yang memang telah
berada pada episode dan detik-detik terakhir.
Ayah : Lalu kita hanya
datang untuk melengkapi setiap noda dan kebobrokan sejarah. Tidak, bahkan kita
tidak sekedar datang untuk menjadi aktor dan memainkan peran baru, justru kita
datang untuk menciptakan panggung kehidupan yang baru, dengan sejarah yang
tidak terikat dengan sejarah sebelumnya.
Ibu : Tapi dengan apa
kita bisa melakukan semua itu.
Ayah : Dengan cara tidak
bertanya tentang apa yang harus dilakukan, tapi melakukan apa seharusnya
perempuan : Adakah dunia yang lebih
indah dari taman yang selalu memanjakanku dengan permainan.
Ayah : Setiap tempat dan
setiap waktu adalah taman untuk bermain. Tapi kalian harus ingat, bahwa hidup
adalah permainan yang butuh keseriusan, kebebasan yang butuh prinsip, hidup
adalah kata-kata yang dipertanggungjawabkan.
laki-laki : Jika demikian, maka ajari kami tentang arti
keseriusan, prinsip dan pertanggungjawaban.
Ayah : Belajarlah pada
burung gereja yang memintal jerami dan ilalang
menjadi rajutan sarang yang indah, rayap-rayap yang membuat balok-balok
jati menjadi serbuk kayu yang halus, atau belajarlah pada panas yang terikat
oleh api, pada suara-suara yang melekat pada tebing-tebing subuh yang hening.
Ibu : Aku yakin
kalian adalah rencana-rencana terbaik Tuhan untuk hidupku (sambil mengusap
kepala putra-putrinya), kalian tak perlu risau tentang apa jadinya masa depan
kalian nanti, sebab Tuhan selalu adil di setiap rencananya.
Ayah : Keadilan Tuhan
hanya dapat dilihat dan dirasakan dengan cara yang adil pula, kebaikanNya akan
menjadi kebaikan bila orang-orang menyikapinya dengan kebaikan. Kita terus
berjalan menuju pada kesempurnaan.
Bagaimana kalau kami mati sebelum mencapai titik kesempurnaan itu.
Ayah : Dipikirkan atau
tidak dipikirkan, kematian akan datang sebab kematian juga bagian dari
Ibu : Kalian masih
muda untuk berbicara tentang kematian, lebih baik membereskan mainan kalian,
sebab sebentar lagi permainan-permaianan itu juga akan berganti dengan
kedewasaan kalian. Emosi akan terus ditempa
seiring usia yang menghantam kita.
Laki-laki : Kami beruntung
dapat hadir di sisi ayah dan ibu.
perempuan : Ini adalah dosa bila
Ayah : Kalian adalah
bukti cinta sejati.
Ibu : Kalian adalah
bias kesempurnaan abadi.
perempuan : Cinta itu apa…
Ayah : Cinta adalah gelombang
dari segala samudera. Cinta adalah rasa dari setiap zat.
Cinta adalah alasan dan tujuan dari
Aku menjadi tidak mengerti.
Ketidakmengertian adalah bentuk kecerdasan tertinggi tentang cinta.
ini aku sangat tertarik untuk bersama orang-orang ini. Kucoba memanjat kaki
kursi yang terbuat dari kayu jati dengan coraknya yang indah. Meski sedikit
licin oleh bahan anti gores yang melekatinya, tapi akhirnya aku berhasil sampai
di kepala lelaki yang dari tadi kuperhatikan seperti orang bijak yang paham
tentang banyak hal. Rambutnya sedikit keriting dan mengeluarkan wangi yang
Di kepala itulah, kucatatkan mu’jizat
dalam hidupku. Semua makhluk mungkin tidak akan percaya dengan peristiwa yang
saya alami. Tapi bagaimana pun
aku merasa perlu membeberkannya kepada siapa saja. Agar sejak saat ini kita
mulai percaya bahwa di luar kekuasaan kita memang tersimpan sebuah kekuasaan
yang maha tak terbatas. Kita tidak perlu ragu untuk membangun sebuah impian sebab
ternyata kemustahilan memang tidak ada.
lagi aku adalah seekor semut betina yang kesepian…
kesepianku itu, aku mendapat kesempatan untuk melintasi beberapa negara hanya
dalam hitungan jam, ternyata laki-laki berambut keriting itu adalah seorang
presiden dari salah satu lembaga parlemen internasional. Bersamanya aku melihat
pabrik-pabrik nuklir yang megah, lalu mengunjungi tempat-tempat pengungsian
yang dihuni oleh ribuan korban perang. Aku melihat proyek peluncuran pesawat
ruang angkasa, serta pusat-pusat pelelangan benda peninggalan sejarah.
yang paling luar biasa adalah aku bisa berdiri di atas sebuah mimbar, dan di
hadapanku sedang duduk ratusan tokoh-tokoh yang paling berpengaruh terhadap
kebidajakan global. Lalu kusaksikan lelaki itu ber’orasi dengan suara yang
kita tertidur lelap sementara di sekeliling kita sedang bising oleh tangisan
bayi yang kehilangan orang tua mereka. Bisakah kita menikmati cakrawala senja
bila angkasa tak henti dipenuhi luncuran roket-roket yang mematikan. Bisakah
kita tenang sementara mata kita menyaksikan orang-orang berlumuran darah.
Bisakah kita beristirahat di antara puing-puing serta reruntuhan bangunan, oleh
bom dan geranat.
demi Tuhan… hidup hanya bisa dinikmati tanpa
perang, ribuan bahkan jutaan nyawa telah melayang, teramat banyak cita-cita
yang telah terkubur karena kehilangan kesempatan. Terlalu sering nurani kita
digetarkan dengan rintihan pilu dari mulut-mulut yang tak berdaya.
kebencian itu ditanggalkan, karena sungguh kita bisa saling menyapa tanpa harus
ada prasangka dan rasa saling ingin menguasai. Mari mengganti proyek pembuatan
senjata dan memperbanyak tentara dengan proyek penanaman hutan-hutan yang telah
rusak. Mari kita akhiri pembicaraan kita tentang strategi perang dan
menggantinya dengan diskusi tentang persaudaraan dan solidaritas. Mari kita
hidup tanpa dendam, tanpa kebencian.
soal kapitalis dan sosialis. Bukan soal untung rugi yang dikalkulasi dengan
hitungan persen, juga bukan tentang nila tukar mata uang antar Negara. Tapi
kita harus berani mengatakan kalau ada yang salah bila jutaan orang yang sedang
berada di bawah garis kemiskinan. Mereka
tidak mampu memenuhi kebutuhan gizi mereka, membiayai pendidikan formal, serta
membangun perumahan yang layak huni.
banyak buruh yang dimesinkan, sementara petani-petani dijajah lewat harga. Ada
jurang pemisah yang sangat jelas antar-penghuni kasta ekonomi. Ada lapangan
kerja yang hanya didominasi oleh kelas-kelas tertentu.
tentu tidak ingin menambah dosa dengan membiarkan hal itu terus terjadi.
Ekonomi yang baik adalah ekonomi yang mampu menyeimbangkan antara kepemilikan
individu dan aspek-aspek sosial. Kita boleh bangga dan sangat berhak memiliki
mobil mewah atau berlian, tapi disisi
lain, kita bisa menjadi sangat terhormat
bila bisa merasakan rasa pahit-manis orang-orang disekeliling kita. Saatnya
pelaku ekonomi juga menjadi pelaku humanisasi.
masih banyak “tentang” yang disampaikan oleh lelaki itu, tapi hampir semuanya
telah kulupakan, Tuhan memang tidak memberiku otak yang cerdas seperti otak
manusia. . . Maaf ya.
WHAT IS A CONSENT?
Consent is an agreement with a voluntary
action proposed by another person. If a person was giving a consent, that
person must be sufficient in their own mental capacity. The person who is a mentally
incompetent, or is under an influence of drugs, he or she is not in mentally
stable for being consented as written in Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and
Dictionary of Medicine
IS AN INFORMED CONSENT?
An informed consent is consent of a
client where the principles of autonomy and privacy are followed. This has
become the requirement in decision making for health care and research Centre.
There are 7 criteria in defining an
to understand and to decide.
of material information.
of a plan.
of terms (3) and (4).
in favor of a plan.
of the plan.
A person who give an informed
consent must follow all of the criteria but if the person rejects the plan,
that person must have an informed refusal.
THAT RELATE TO THE INFORMED CONSENT ON HUMAN SUBJECT RESEARCH.
Informed consent defined a permission
who given by patient to a doctor or other medical team regarding any procedure involving
surgical or non-surgical procedure. Patient will be explained the purpose of
the procedure, indication, contraindication, side effect and the risk of the
procedure. Informed consent will be obtained once the patient has understood
and two-way communication (questioning and answering) was achieved.
Informed consent is a medico legal subject
which if it is not performed correctly, it may affect the patient’s
understanding and health. Some patient may sign the consent blindly without
aware of the consequences, as all procedure have its benefit and risk.
Misunderstanding may sometimes happen among the informer and receiver when language
barrier is one of the issue. Misinterpretation of language among them might
lead to different outcome. Patients also have their rights to accepts, refuse
and argue about the decision that has been made by them, but it is also the
informer’s responsibility to explained about the details.
ETHICAL PRINCIPLES FOR CONDUCTING
RESEARCH WITH HUMAN PARTICIPANTS.
Medical research involving human beings
have created a lot of potential pitfalls that led to tragedies in the last
In 1963 in Brooklyn; Jewish Chronic
Diseases Hospital, a cancer cells were injected into debilitated elderly
patients just to see if they would immunologically reject the cells and in
1972, Willow Brook State Hospital in New York; a retarded child was deliberately
infected with viral hepatitis to study its natural history. So, it is clear
that various cultures such as Persia, Ancient and Greece have attempted to
regulate medicine and protect patient rights. Due to all of these cases, they
were trying to avoid mistakes made in the past and to provide guidance for the
These are the resulted in a
series of International Declarations and Conventions which underpin all
research involving human participants:
Code (1947) set out ten key points for responsible research with
human participants, including the need to obtain informed consent,
the importance of proper planning and conduct, and the
need for beneficence towards participants.
Council of Europe (CoE) was created in 1949 and established the European
Convention on Human Rights in 1953, which is now also embedded in
Member States’ legislation.
of Helsinki (1964) developed these ethical principles further by
looking at issues such as informed consent in more detail.
further Convention which specifically addresses human rights and
biomedicine was produced in 1997 in the light of new advances in research.
According to The US Belmont
Report, they have the most concise summary of rights and obligations in terms
of research and, as such, provide the foundation for research ethics guidance
in several places around the globe. The Belmont Report includes three ‘basic ethical principles’ for
judging the ethical treatment of human participants:
for persons: The personal
dignity and autonomy of individuals must be recognized and there must be
special protections for persons with ‘diminished autonomy’ (e.g. children
Beneficence: Researchers have an obligation to
protect persons from harm by maximizing the anticipated
benefits and minimizing the risk of harm
Justice: The benefits and burdens of
research must be distributed fairly.
Belmont Report also includes that to ensure informed consent to be ethically valid; it must include
components such as:
informed consent must be clear.
participant understood about the explanations and they were given chance to
question any doubt.
participant joined the research voluntarily without any outside event.
is fully competent to involve in the research.
must authorize their participation in the research study
As a child,
a female’s ovaries prevent the Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnHR) from being
released by constantly creating a little bit of estrogen. When GnHR is finally
released around the time of puberty, the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and
luteinizing hormone (LH) are produced as a response. Estrogen is directly released
by the granulosa cells while the LH cells release androgens that get turned
into estrogens. When these levels get too high, the hypothalamus and anterior
pituitary experience negative feedback and FSH and LH are not able to be
produced. FSH also experiences negative feedback from inhibin, which results in
only one living follicle that creates raised estrogen levels. Positive feedback
happens when the estrogen reaches a certain blood level, resulting in the
release of gonadotropin.
When there is a lot of estrogen, LH is released which causes
the oocytle of the follicle to experience meiotic division resulting in another
oocyte. Ovulation takes place after about 14 days which is associated with an
ovary wall that becomes weaker. A portion of this wall breaks and the oocyte
goes through the broken hole. The follicle that burst turns into a corpus
luteum, which makes progesterone and estrogen. Negative feedback on the
hypothalamus and pituitary takes place when the progesterone and estrogen
levels get too high. If the egg is not fertilized, the blood levels go back
down, the estrogen and progesterone levels go back down and the corpus luteum
gets destroyed (Marieb 1058). The uterine cycle involves the changes that the endometrium
experiences in response to ovarian hormones. The changes experienced relate to
what is going on in the ovarian cycle. The first step of the uterine cycle is
called the menstrual phase and it occurs over a span of 1-5 days. In this phase
there is bleeding due to the shedding of the endometrium. On the last day, the
follicles make more estrogen. The next phase is the proliferative phase and its
span is 6-14 days. It involves the reformation of the endometrium that happens
under increased estrogen levels. At the end of this phase, ovulation occurs. The
secretory phase happens over a span of 15-24 days. This phase involves getting
ready for the embryo to implant. Progesterone levels increase to form the
cervical plug that keeps all unwanted things out, such as pathogens. This
increase also stops LH from being released. If fertilization does not occur, progesterone
levels decrease back to the normal range, LH blood levels go back down and the corpus
luteum deteriorates. Menstrual blood flow indicates the starting of this cycle