Some of the most important quantitative variables that were used for data collection and analysis include mDNA, AFLP, AFLP sequences, morphology and plumage coloration (Brelsford et al. 2011).  The amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis produced significant results indicating a clear cluster distinction between the parent species, D. coronata and D. nigrifrons (Brelsford et al. 2011).  Additionally, the D. auduboni cluster was found to be between D. coronata and D. nigrifrons.  Despite the strong genetic evidence supporting this strong model of homoploid hybrid speciation, reproductive isolation between D. auduboni and D. nigrifrons has yet to be demonstrated (Brelsford et al. 2011).  Reproductive isolation, in any situation of possible hybrid species, is crucial and plays an important role in increasing overall genetic diversity.  The lack of reproductive isolation is considered by Brelsford et al (2011), suggesting that a fusion event may be possible.

The importance of reproductive isolation is not lost with the yellow-rumped warbler complex.  An excellent model of reproductive isolation has been made by studying the Italian sparrow, a hybrid species whose parents are the Spanish sparrow P. hispaniolensis and the house sparrow P. domesticus.  The authenticity of the Italian sparrow was assured by Hermansen et al. (2011), as their findings suggested great divergence between the parental species and the hybrid, a mixed nuclear genome and no unique haplogroups found at various loci.

The He isolates the middle 2 sentences, both of

The Ultimate ApologyHow does one begin to apologize for what is arguably the greatest genocide in human history? I Express My Shame, by Gerhard Schröder, was delivered directly to the people that were the subject of unimaginable horrors in an attempt to bravely face the repercussions of the Holocaust head on. This joined many great speeches made before his, by creating a sense of forgiveness and understanding through his syntax and humble reasoning.The liberation of the concentration camps, scattered across nations conquered by germany, marked the end of Hitler’s reign of terror and the ethnic cleansing that ensued under his leadership. The horrors that occured in these work and death camps were being realized by outside governments and populations during WWII, but it wasn’t until the voices of those who actually survived these camps were heard that the world truly understood the magnitude of dehumanization that took place. This speech occurs, in front of holocaust survivors and and assortment of politicians, exactly 60 years after the liberation of the infamous Nazi death camp, Auschwitz. Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, a known advocate for immigrant rights, green power, and reducing the rate of unemployment, delivers this speech in the hopes of furthering the journey to healing between all who suffered in the holocaust and the germans.Schröders diction is used in such a way that he invokes all the emotions associated with those times; sorrow, pain, regret, and even strength, while still maintaining the utmost respect for his audience, the victims of Germany’s past. We bear this burden with sadness, but also with a serious sense of responsibility. Millions of men, women, and children were gassed, starved, or shot by German SS troops and their helpers. Jews, gypsies, homosexuals, political prisoners, POWs, and resistance fighters from across Europe were exterminated with cold industrial perfection or were enslaved and worked to death. Never before had there been a worse breakdown of thousands of years of European culture and civilization (Schröder).Schröder skillfully makes each of these 4 sentences their own paragraph to emphasize the importance of his subject. ¨We bear this burden…with a serious sense of responsibility¨, sets the somber tone for the coming sentences, in which he speaks of the violence experienced by millions of people during The Second World War (Schröder).. He isolates the middle 2 sentences, both of which contain several commas, forcing you to pause when considering each item in between. His insistence in showing the importance of this particular section of his speech tells his audience that, beyond a shadow of a doubt, he understands the crimes committed by his people and is utterly apologetic.Humans use of logic and reasoning are what put us at the top of the food chain, and Schröder exemplified this by using his reasoning to lay the responsibility of remembering the genocide, in its entirety, upon the shoulders of himself and every other German citizen. He is able to honor the victims of the Holocaust by ensuring that the German people, will not let the world forget the pain that was suffered at the hands of their forebears, and the lives that were cast so needlessly into the abyss. ¨The vast majority of the Germans living today bear no guilt for the Holocaust. But they do bear a special responsibility…remembrance of the Nazi era and its crimes is a moral obligation¨ (Schröder). He starts this paragraph with the concession that while the German people of his day had no part in the suffering of the jews and others who were affected, they must still deal with the repercussions of the sorrow that occurred on their soil. By saying that, ¨We owe it to the victims, we owe it to the survivors and their families, and we owe it to ourselves¨, Schröder effectively shows, not only his acceptance of their fate, but an eagerness to fulfill the debt that he feels is owed (Schröder). This opens the audience to his raw shame and good heartedness which appeals to the audience’s own forgiveness. The author’s use of diction and reasoning to show the depth of emotion he feels over the Holocaust creates a speech that is powerful and innovative in its approach to something so momentous. While this is a subject that may be argued to be better left unbroached, due to its sensitive nature, the author maintains his respect and humble disposition throughout his speech making it effective in getting his thoughts to his intended audience. A great speech is defined by its ability to move others, regardless of background, race, or religion, and I Express My Shame epitomizes that idea.        Works CitedSchröder, Gerhard. I Express My Shame.öder, Gerhard. “The History Place.” N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2018.. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Gerhard Schröder.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 30 Oct. 2014,

10 work on your intensity. 8. Measure your everyday

10 Lessons Learned from Squatting 400 Pounds

Squats are probably
the most difficult exercise and squatting with 400 pounds is not an easy task. The
bodybuilders you see in the gym or in any
competitions that lift pounds of weight did not achieve it in a day, they
practiced it for years, followed a strict
diet, and many more. They train themselves to lift maximum weight every day. Here we have 10 lessons that we can
learn from a person who achieved squatting with 400 pounds of weight.

1.     Do it right and with the right trainer. If you are new in the field then
don’t think of starting doing all alone. It’s always good to take advice. Do it
with stronger people, because when you will see more weights in their bars then
you will feel motivated.

2.      Try not to miss exercises. Here’s the formula
for hunching down 400 pounds:

Make a routine of doing squats2-3 times a week.

Increase the weight every week.

Don’t skip the gym for long period.

3.      If all else fails, go slower. If you think
that you cannot increase 10 pounds every week then start with 5 pounds. The most
important thing is you should not get hurt during the workout.

4.      Your first and most important concern should
be your health. If you are stressed then it’s impossible to focus on your
workout and maybe, you end up hurting

5.      Consistency and practice are important. Your warm up should be same as
your workout. To achieve certain results you require practice. Practice hard
and regularly. The person who practices
the most does the work perfectly.

6.      Don’t raise the questions like what
surrounding people are thinking of me? Am I doing it right?  If you are powerful and doing a great job then, you will gain positive
attention and comparison, it makes you feel confident about yourself. But first
of all, you should be confident that
whatever you are doing is great.

7.      Focus on the volume
before intensity. Start with light weights and slowly increase the weight. It requires
your patience and hard work but results will be tremendous. If you are ready
with lots of volumes then work on your

8.     Measure your everyday records. Never think
that you cannot do it or cannot carry this much weight. Never lose hope, maybe
not today but tomorrow or day after tomorrow you will succeed.

9.      Always keep yourself motivated. If you enter
the gym with motivation and dedication then your frequency of workout increases.  

 Don’t see yourself in the mirror because it shows you the one line
picture. Feel your body.

Diet holds the most important place in your workout. Eat healthy and keep
yourself fit. 

According Kimmel, 2010,p.455). Evidence demonstrates that violence is a

According to Every town Research for Gun
Safety, there have been 242 school shootings in America since 2013. School
shootings are a type of mass shootings that occurs periodically, yet these
specific events are the most emotionally impactful in American schools but also
worldwide. This phenomenon   is described
as a “rampage shootings that take place in school settings, that involves
multiple victims and it involves one or more shooters who are students or
former students”(Newman, 2004,p.50). The Columbine legacies, Virginia Tech are
the pioneers of school shootings.  As the
general public continues to fabricate general assumptions on these
circumstances, therefore the problem is still unanswered and as a result may
aggravate these offender`s behaviours .The purpose of this research is to examine the issue of school
shootings in the United States of America through
the use of a multidisciplinary approach. The disciplines of sociology will look
at, gender, peer relationships, and the small communities factors. The
disciplines of psychology will look at the shooter’s profile, and its
motivations. The disciplines of politics will look at the gun control policy,  the effectiveness of school security measure,
and the Virginia Tech Assessment Model








At the
sociological level, gender is a contributing factor for these perpetrators to
commit school shootings. When examining historical cases of this phenomenon, there
is a common pattern in the population of perpetrators. White males are solely
responsible for these school shootings. (Kimmel and Mahler, 2003,p.1443). These
individuals are pressured to conform to their genders (p.1446). Hegemonic
masculinity is a desired minimal standard of behaviour for men. (Donaldson, 1993).
It is primarily based on traditional gender roles. This ideology is   about  
men being the authoritarian figures in private and public institutions.
Researchers found that the shooters are in engaged in activities that seem to
deviate from the ideology that has been prescribed to them. (p.1447). As a
result they become a target of entertainment to their peers (Kimmel et al,
2003,p.1447). Their behaviours are an example of how they encounter several
consequences when they do not become followers of this masculinity script
(Kimmel et al, 2003). Unfortunately, these victims believe in these feelings of
being failures and worthless (Kalish and Kimmel, 2010,p.455). Evidence
demonstrates that violence is a requirement for masculinities (Kalish and
Kimmel, p. 450). These offenders reacted by shooting their peers as a process
of clearing their names. (Kimmel, et al, 2003 p.1447). In short, masculinities
can contribute to individual’s behaviours to commits horrendous school
rampages. Since their peers shame their masculinity, these perpetrators become
victims of bullying.

 School shooters commit these acts due to them having
been the victims of bullying; the issue is an on-going- case that hinders an
individual educational achievement. According to the National Association of
School, Psychologists about 160,000 children miss school everyday due to fear
of bullying (Newman, 2004,p.64). The targets are usually the ones that appear
to be physically or psychologically vulnerable. It is important to note that
the age of the victims should not be neglected (Leary et al, 2003). Bullying
can negatively impact a student`s self esteem at an early age (Leary et al,
2003). These victims are heavily picked on, heartbroken, and betrayed by their
own friends (Leary et al, 2003,p.207). In the midst of their pain, they might seek support from their
teachers; unfortunately their teachers misguide and favour other students above
them and as a result, they may feel emotional strain. (Newman, 2004,p.98). In
search of their identity, they seek approval from others by making false
stories about themselves. (p.131). Their plan deteriorates because their peers
have instilled a negative representation of these offenders (Newman,
2004,p.131). The researcher demonstrate how these offender`s happiness is
measured by their sense of belonging in their schools. The way small
communities respond to these offender`s behaviours can also be a factor.

is important to note that perpetrators can cause trouble even in communities
were violence is minimal. In fact, “60 percent of shootings have taken place in
rural areas”(Newman, 2004.p.112). The school shootings that have occurred in
these communities have a strong sense of what Robert Putnam defines as social
capital (p.113). This term means that people are supportive towards one another
(p.113). However Newman argues that this theory is not helpful for the safety
of the small communities. Prepatotr`s family member are  often times unaware of their children`s
behaviours (Newman, 2004,p.117). Since these communities are focused on
maintaining their relationships, when they are  
aware of the perpetrator’s threats, they do not tell because they do not
want to disrupt their environment (Newman, 2004,p.122). In consequence, since
there is an absence of security measures in small communities, the enforcer may
grasp they opportunity to commit murderous crimes. Interactional relationships
and societal norms explains the shooter`s decisions to kill random victims,
however when looking at the individual factors, many of them are in conflict
with themselves and are desiring for public attention they see these shootings
as a means to solve their problems.

At the psychological level, mental illness
is a common factor when discussing  
these shooter`s actions. Even though some rampage shooters are diagnosed
with mental illness, it does not represent the overall population (Metzl and Macleish,
2015,p.242). However, in order for one to understand a shooter`s profile it is helpful
to distinguish between the different types of personality disorders. Dr. Peter
Langman sorts rampage shooters intro three categories: Psychopaths, Psychotic
and traumatized (2009,p.21). Psychopath shooters are individuals that are selfish,
these shooters will never be content with themselves and their communities They
are unwilling to be concerned about people`s needs (Langman, 2009,p.21). They
express their needs   trough the acts of coercion and
aggressiveness. These perpetrators master the art of masking their character (p.23).
Andrew Golden is an example of a psychopathic shooter. On March 24 1998, Andrew
and his friend Mitchell, commited mass murder (p.21). Their young ages indicate
how they are fascinated by the theme of violence (Langman, 2009,p.21). In fact,
psychopaths demonstrate their cruelty by inflicting extreme pain on humans and
animals. (p.23). Further, psychopaths are narcissist individuals (Langman,
2009,p.38). They view themselves as nonconformist meaning that they act
according to their own rules (p.45). These shooters rather want to be the main
source of influence (p.45). As a result they when they are pressured to obey
authority, they express their frustrations by automatically shooting people (Langman,
2009, p.45).

Psychotic shooters differ from psychopaths
and they are broken down into two categories: Schizotypal and schizophrenia
personality disorder (Langman, 2009,p.49). Schizotypal shooters cognitive
abilities are impaired compared to their peers. Their sense of identify is
altered due to the lack of mutuality among their friends, and they are
emotionally distant from their social communities (Langman, 2009,p.59). In short,
these shooters hurt innocent victims because of how they perceive themselves (Langman,
2009,p.59). Their pessimistic thoughts hinder schizotypal shooters to find ways
to improve their condition (P. 59). The Schizophrenic shooters are in a
constant battle with their inner thoughts, and therefore they are viewed as
strange individuals. (p.75). These shooters randomly kill innocent people
because they believe that it is their moral obligation to defend themselves against
their imaginary thoughts. (Langman, 2009,p.77). Michael Carneal is an example
of a shooter that has been diagnosed as a schizophrenic. On December 1st
1997, he entered the school building with five guns and killed a group of
people .(p.77).Schizophrenic become restless because they are  deeply rooted in the belief that people are
going to harm them (Langman, 2009,p.77). Also, their reason for their killing
is prominently caused by strain of others judgment, which can negatively impact
their consciousness (p.88).

Traumatized shooters come from families
where members are emotionally and physically disconnected from one another (Langman,
2009,p.106). There is a recurring cycle of violence in their families and where
they are likely to be victims of physical abuse (Langman, 2009, p.107). Jeffrey
Weise is an example of a traumatized shooter. On March 21,2005 he killed his
grandmother and his classmates (p.118-119). Along with this experience, these perpetrators
are left to figure out life on their own because their parents are incompetent
to provide them the right guidance. (p.118-119). These school shooters open
fire as way to cope with their distress. (Langman, 2006, p. 126). These
shooters as a result of their personality disorders feel that they lost the
meaning of life and are unable to become resilient from their experiences. The
desire of public acknowledgment can be another cause for these shootings.

School shooters seek fame though killing
multiple victims; they see it as an opportunity where their names become a
discussion in popular culture. Larkin (2009), explains, “The body count almost
always innocent bystanders, exists primarily as a method of generating media attention”.
For these offenders, they are knowledgeable about the media and understand how it
can impact people` lives (Larkin 2009 p, 1322). As a result, through their
actions, the attention that they received justifies their personal
gratification. (Larkin, 2009,p.1322). Since any of these shooters are in inner
conflict with themselves, they are persuaded by the notion of “going out in
blaze of glory (Newman, 2004,p.251). This reflects their values and that they
will do whatever it takes to achieve their desire for fame (Newman, 2004p.251).
As a matter of evidence, Harris stated: :Isn’t fun to get the respect were
going to deserve”? (). Furthermore, the foreshadowing themes of violence in
their writings are common for these shooters and it is overlooked by many individuals
(Newman, 2009,page 256). Also, future perpetrators that relate with these shooters,
see their actions as a way a of preserving these traditions. (Larkin,
2009,p.1312). In short, these shooters are intrigued by how their shootings
triggers emotional sensitivity to human beings. Looking at the damagaed caused
by school perpetrators it is important to explain how lawmakers and school
systems can implement policies in response to this phenomenon.

The debate about gun control is essential for policymakers
and law enforcement. Kopel (2015) criticizes guns supporters for overlooking
the failures of this policy. He highlights that individuals, specifically
criminals are knowledgeable about universal background checks laws. As a result,
these individuals may find alternatives to access firearms (Koppel, 2015,p.3).
A shit from background checks to tightening economical policies will achieve desired
results in terms of firearms regulations (Lafollette, 2011,p.276). Gun controls
supporters believe that the availability of guns negatively destabilizes a
community (Lafollette, 2011,p.273). On the contrary, gun control advocates generalize
every firearm, for this reason the argument of guns being dangerous is wrong
(Kopel, 2015,p.10). There are some guns that are dangerous in terms of their
capacity in comparison to others ( p.10). However, magazine guns are effective
for individuals that find themselves vulnerable in a particular situation (p.10).
In sum, as school shootings and firearms continue to be a research of interest,
the debate about restricting guns will be unending. For this reason, it is
important to focus on one of the security measures implemented in schools.

School resources officers is a common security measure in
response   to school shootings.
Governments value the importance of school resources as way to regulate school crime
(Addignton, 2009,1431). Government financially invest in this security measure,
that is why there is an increase of school officers in elementary and in high
schools. However, school security may hinder students learning environment, and
they may be disconnected from the school resource officers (Addignton,
2009,p.1437). Further, there is a need for in depth research about the long-term
impacts of school resource officers in terms of reducing crime (Addignton,
2009,1435). Researchers focus on the relationship between school resources officers
and crime rates (Na et Gottfredson, 2011,p.7-8). Results demonstrate that the
likelihood of school resources reducing crimes is scarce (Na et al, 2011,p.24).
In short, although school resource officers is a desired security measure,
researcher recommend that there is need of development of school resources in
terms of their contributions to reduce crime. The Virginia Tech assessment model
is an effecting program in responding to school shootings.

A threat assessment model is a guide that
determines the degree of seriousness of a person`s intentions (Cornell, n.d,
p.4). Trough the use of a decision tree process, school administrators develop
solutions to resolve the conflicts that influence a student`s threat (Cornell,
n.d, p.5). Their primary purpose is to acquire a student`s background in order
to identify the right threat (p.5). After their evaluation, they categorize the
threat in two categories: Substantive and transient (Langman, 2009 p. 207).
Substantive are more alarming because of its violent nature (Cornell, n.d, p.6).
Therefore, the administrators conduct a safety evaluation that includes a law
enforcement investigation and a mental health evaluation of the student (p.6).
Despite its effectiveness, threat Assements can also be complicated (p, 208).
Perpetrators sometimes make threats for the sake of making others afraid of them
(Langman, 2009,p.208). A second reason is because some perpetrators are intrigued
of being mysterious; therefore they will not make a threat (p.208). There is a
need for students to be alert when they know that their peers has revealed
their intentions because it is significant for the well-being of the school
environment (P.208). Threats Assements can be used as form of rehabilitation
procedure .In sum, threat Assements help schools to make rational decisions for
student`s misbehaviour.

Despite the sensitivity of school shootings,
these events occur infrequently. It is impossible to generalize these offenders
because their intentions may vary. Their reasons may be a combination of
factors that that leads them to commit shootings. Marginalization and stigma
can negatively impact a perpetrator’s well being and as result it influences
their actions. Many of the prerepatratrs believe committing rampages is a way
to cope with their mental illness. This research can challenge people to revaluate
their perceptions of school shooters and be more awakened by the shooter`s

As the US alone has around 3000 start-ups followed

‘Sophia’, the humanoid, attains citizenship of a country and retains many
special rights which are not even offered to the women citizens of respective
country, the debate of artificial verses human intelligence gets heated again 2.
The debating communities on either side of the table, howsoever different
principally, appreciate the technology and emotionally expressive face of the
humanoid. This picture typically brings to our minds, a visualization of humans
being assisted by artificial intelligence in every sphere of life, to say the
least, that’s the basic idea behind their creation. Artificial
intelligence (AI) in human healthcare has been a game changer. The last 15
years were dedicated to smart devices that ensure speed, precision, monitoring
and control over health and diseases. This era has seen a shift in focus from
human resource (humanized team efforts) to data resource, from data resource
(collection of detailed medical facts and figures) to machine learning (large
data pool which starts co-relating these facts and figures) and from machine
learning to artificially obtained intelligence (ability to interpret a new
sample on the basis of past data analysis) (Fig.1).Electronic-health
(e-health) solutions are the software applications related to healthcare, that
provide tools, processes, and communication means to support electronic
healthcare practice (Hairong Yan et al., 2010; Hernandez et al., 2001; Ball and
Lillis, 2001; Dixon, 2007; Hsu et al., 2005). Mobile-health (m-health) comes
under the umbrella of e-health that refers to e-health functionality on mobile
phones which further diverges into technologies of networking, medical sensors,
computation and communication (Istepanian et al., 2004). There is another term
called tele-health which refers to medical counseling on phone by an expert
doctor to medical staff in remote areas lacking high end medical expertise.

intelligence has recently stepped into healthcare but has made major
transformations to the whole system of diagnosis, analysis and even drug

AI around the

The geographical distribution of start-ups in artificial
intelligence around the world is itself an interesting topic to work on as the
dynamics are changing fast. There are several applications of AI like
healthcare, retail, financial services, manufacturing etc.,  and if all included, the US alone has around 3000 start-ups followed by China,
Britain, India and Canada. Countries like Israel, Germany, France, Spain and
Switzerland also make a mark .
Within the US, states holding maximum start-up sector were California (51%),
New York (11%), Massachusetts (9%)and states like Utah, Colorado, New jersey, Texas,
Illinois, Virginia, Washington, Michigan, Ohio and Florida are witnessing a generation
of well-funded start-up growth. Globally, the AI revenue is estimated to reach $37 billion by 2025.A sole share of $19.2 billon will be claimed by healthcare applications of AI
with image analysis leading the chase, followed by virtual assistance, patient
data processing, computational drug discovery and converting paperwork into
digital data.

Some products as
an example of collaborative research

Let us witness a few stories where biotechnology has wedded
multidisciplinary research and led to wonderful products.

 3D Printed bones

Cornock, a 23-year-old graduate from University of Wollongong, Australia,
is transforming the world of medical sciences by his 3D printed bones.  He has used advanced bio-engineering
techniques to manufacture complex scaffolds that can exactly fit into fractured
bone areas with the help of specific scans and imaging of the fractured area.
These perfectly tailored bones, printed through 3D printers are then
transplanted into patients’ body.

Another product of the same
university is a bio pen that is used to deliver live cells and growth factors
directly to the site of injury. This reduces the surgery as well as recovery
time as regeneration of functional bone and cartilage is stimulated by the
growth factors. These types of implants are best for cases with diseased bone
structures. It is made from biodegradable, non-toxic material that provides a
structure through its polymer component and recovery through its growth factors
and drug component.

Sickle cell chip

A diagnostic kit developed by a team from IIT Bombay has made
it possible to detect sickle cell anemia, a common blood disorder found in
tribal areas of central and southern India. This kit is affordable, portable
and can be used even by untrained medical staff. Debjani Paul, Ninad Mehendale
and Ammar Jagirdar from the Indian Institute of Technology, Powai have
developed this kit as an example of lab on chip diagnostics that can facilitate
distant, rural, underprivileged sections of human population. The idea was
funded by BIRAC and the Bill & Melinda gates foundation. Invention of this
kit has proved to be a savior for all the patients especially children who died
before even being diagnosed with the disease. A drop of patient blood added to
this- reagents loaded plastic micro fluidic chip- can be imaged by a mobile
phone camera.

Other than these two stories, there
are other products like wearable solar cell based textiles and pairs of
affordable socks that do not need shoes as they are much tougher than steel. It
gives a feeling of barefoot walking and gives a fine grip to the feet.With the societal and lifestyle changes, health monitoring
and maintenance itself has become a challenge. The solution also comes from the
same age of e-health where artificial intelligence assists human intelligence
to confront these challenges of day-to-day life not only for the patients but
also for their caretakers. Mobile phones, electronic gadgets and internet
services have involved non-medical practitioners along with patients themselves,
to be the first monitors of their ailments, and have personalized health
monitoring and treatment. An ever-increasing number of healthcare startups are
incorporating machine learning and algorithm-driven platforms to achieve their
milestones though artificially intelligent solutions that can ease and
accelerate the process of diagnosis as well as interpretations for the doctors.

In the Indian scenario, the culture of healthcare startups
based on AI is mostly in tier 1 cities and the trend is likely to extend to
tier 2 cities with the increasing number of IT professionals interested in
multidimensional uses of their capabilities. Also the effective utilization of
funds and stimulating groups of venture capitalists are also increasing in
numbers some of who belong to neither healthcare nor software development, but
are still interested in investing into such ventures. Angel investors and
mentor groups associated with organizations like BIRAC which are working with
the prime objective of making healthcare startups a success, add to this
ecosystem. To top all this, the ‘make in India’ campaign initiated by
government of India supports this through its policies through ‘Atal incubation
mission’ (AIM), where constant funds are disbursed to universities and similar
institutions for development of  incubation centers, where new start-ups can be
incubated  without having to worry about
space, instrumentation and basic facilities. The contemporary trends of
utilization of AI in healthcare services remain in day to day monitoring of
vital data points, diagnostics and predictive analytics followed by deep
learning (Table 5), and companies like Tricog (Bangalore), Lybrate (Faridabad)
are strongly surfacing.

In the global context, AI already holds a big share of market
in the healthcare sector. There are devices that can automatically detect
diseases like anemia, malaria, leukemia and other cancers thus reducing waiting
time of the patients to get pathology reports before treatment. There are also
a category of devices, which are used to continuously monitor normal health
parameters like blood pressure, heart rate and sugar level (Table2). Non
Invasive techniques like ‘liquid biopsy’ (spit test),  cut off all the pain associated with the
diagnosis of cancer  and act as first
line of treatment as even a day saved in diagnosis is a chance won to survive
the disease. The general methods of
peeping inside the living systems like cardiac imaging, MRI, ECG, ultrasonography,
microscopy, tissue analysis, radiology etc. are known, and are evolving at a pace
faster, which is another level of research altogether. This ever growing and
unrolling world of technologies in diagnostics and analysis, to unfold the
inner secrets of human body, when amalgamated to data collection, deep learning
and AI, become a powerful combat against disease and illness.   

The process of drug discovery is a long
tedious and exorbitant process. A single over the counter (OTC)
drug may also prove extortionate for the pharmaceutical business sometimes.
Here, AI coalesced with bioinformatics (Table 3) proves to be the game changer
by working out years’ job in hours, plus the saved resources are an advantage. 

Another aspect of AI powered devices is that
they reduce complete dependence on medically trained staff. Some devices are so
user friendly and portable that the sophistication and complexity of a typical
hospital-type environment is completely kept at bay. Where on one hand devices
like portable dialysis machine (Table1) give the patient the ease of mobility,
the devices like absorbable heart stent eradicate the botheration of
aftereffects. Smart pill like medication today makes it completely possible to
track the exact time of ingestion of drug 
and devices like speech restorer and autonomous wheelchair not only act
as augmented body parts, but also impacts the patient’s personal and social
life by heightening their self- confidence.

The most apparent application of AI is patient data recording
and mining (Table 4). Using a robot to explain lab results to patients or
taking a chatbot as a life coach is no more an exaggeration now. The number of
efficient workers in healthcare is not a big number already, and this goes down
further as some members are busy only to maintain patient data records. Here AI
has played a vital role in helping the medical world with data collection,
maintenance and deriving a meaningful interpretation through deep learning.
This data mining is helpful not only for doctors and medical staff, but these
days insurance companies also use this information to digitally verify patient’s
insurance information to ensure it is valid and accurate and digitization
reduces the manual load. With the growing population, it is not possible to
proportionally increase the number of health practitioners per person, but it
is possible to make the process easier and faster through AI.

The interpretation based on data size is
sometimes more than even the number of cases handled by the health
professionals but anyways AI is used as a helping hand and not as an
alternative for doctors. Artificial intelligence has also accelerated
technology-assisted programs in areas like mental health- emotional
intelligence indicators and post-traumatic stress disorder treatment program
are already in market.  Rehabilitation
and dentistry.(E-health in low- and middle-income countries: findings from  the Center for Health Market Innovations
Trevor Lewis, a Christina Synowiec,b 
Gina Lagomarsinoa& Julian Schweitzer; Bull World Health Organ 2012;
90:332–340 doi:10.2471/BLT.11.099820). Healthcare research is as vast as the
curiosity of human mind and the challenges are ever changing with changing
times. This is off course just a beginning of wireless medical technologies, a
lot of research still needs to be done on at actual application of such devices
including the psychological responses of the subject. Moreover, this paradigm
shift in medical culture also needs to be supported and endorsed by doctors as
common people still consider a doctor’s advice over gadgets, and if so, the
extended expenditures should be justified. As nature finds out ways to balance
human population through constantly evolving diseases

Breakfast abuse, suicide, family problems. In this research, a

Breakfast is the
most important meal due to its association with positive outcomes. In addition,
breakfast is crucial for attention, energy for the day, focuses, avoiding
fatigue. For example, in this study, a group of children with different
economic status were examined to see the effect of breakfast skipping on their
academic performance; some of them were given breakfast and some were not.

Children who regularly ate breakfast show positive outcomes on their school
performance 1. Many studies revealed that breakfast is crucial in prevention
of many chronic diseases such as heart failure, cancer, diabetes type 1, and
bone weakness 2.


breakfast is associated with great decrease on student’s grades, attention
within lectures, and fatigue. Moreover, skipping breakfast cam impact
psychologic function (including memory), students’ attendance, psychosocial
function, and mood swings in many age categories among males and females 2.

Furthermore, a study in the University of Ghana Medical School confirmed that
lack of breakfast could lead to fatigue and lack of attention among the
clinical students. Although, there was no evidence that the students skipped
breakfast the whole working days (Monday to Friday). Overall, approximately
78.5% (128/163) of the clinical students felt tired or very tired without
breakfast. On the other hand, about 83% (135/163) felt slightly tired or not
tired at all when they had no breakfast 3.

Although we know
that breakfast skipping is harmful, what is the main reason for it? In our
research, we will focus on stress whether it causes skipping breakfast or not. stress
is a condition of mental or emotional strain that results from many reasons
such as peer pressure, academic life, social problems. A survey was conducted
in Faculty of Medicine, King Faisal University in Alahsaa, Saudi Arabia, among
244 medical students reported high levels of stress. The common factor that
contributes to this increased level of stress was academic demands. Studies
showed that the levels of stress increased in medical students and worsen over
the years of medical school. As a result, this can lead to many psychological
and social problems such as substance abuse, suicide, family problems.

this research, a cross- sectional questionnaire will be conducted to detect the
association between stress and breakfast skipping among health care students of
King Saud University for Health Sciences. The students will be survived are
from each college including preparatory college, medicine, pharmacy, dentistry,
and applied medical sciences.  

Entrepreneurship, sold the remaining 20 million, out of 44

Entrepreneurship, as a commonly accepted concept, is something that has been widely known about for generations, after first being introduced by Richard Cantillon in 1730. However, when we start to analyse the concept in more detail, we find there are many different definitions of entrepreneurship and what it means to be an entrepreneur. During this essay, we will review the differences in the Economic schools of thought centred around entrepreneurship and also how entrepreneurship has contributed to economic development. In addition, by looking at influential figures, we’ll discuss whether innovation is central to entrepreneurship and review how they fit into different schools of thought.   It is widely thought that the term entrepreneur was first introduced and used by Jean-Baptiste Say in 1803, however in his book Essai sur la Nature du Commerce en Général (‘Essay on the Nature of Trade in General’) in 1755, Richard Cantillon was the first person to introduce this term. Within the text, Cantillon writes that there is a clear split within society of those who are fixed-income earners working for others on some form of salary and those who are not. The latter, called entrepreneurs were said to “bear the risk of fixed costs of production and uncertain selling prices” (Rothbard, 2006, p. 351) implying that unlike those who work for others, entrepreneurs are greater financial risk takers and are likely to be owners of, or investors in, businesses. In addition, contrasting to later theories of entrepreneurship, which will be discussed later, Cantillon suggested that entrepreneurs brought equilibrium by being able to correctly predict different consumer preferences.   This suggests that to have entrepreneurship one must be willing to take a financial risk in order to gain profit. There are many examples of this, with investment being seen as a risk to take with a start-up company.  For example, in its first conception, in 2004, Peter Thiel invested over $500,000 into Facebook. This was seen as a huge financial risk due to the relatively new industry that Facebook was entering. In 2012, he sold the remaining 20 million, out of 44 million shares, cashing out just over $1 billion (Cowley, 2012).   Jean Baptiste Say, a French school of thought economist, built upon the work of Cantillon.  He described entrepreneurship in the followingway. “The entrepreneur shifts economic resources out of an area of lower productivity and into an area of higher productivity and greater yield” (Extra, 2009). He argues that merely creating a better supply does not guarantee an increased demand level – especially if you bring things to the market that no one values. Say looked at different characteristics of an entrepreneur, and most notably wrote that administration and resource coordination were key skills for entrepreneurs and that they use sound judgement to “buy materials, collect labourers and find consumers” (Robert F. Hébert, 1888, p. 38). The French school of thought suggests that management and resource acquisition take priority over innovation. With its factor of production management and coordination, Amazon is the front-runner in the e-commerce industry and shows how Say’s theory of entrepreneurship works in practice. With an intense management structure and high productivity with regards to its allocation of goods and service, Amazon is the fourth most valuable public company in the world (Encyclopedia, 2017). This suggests that using resources efficiently and intelligently is central to entrepreneurial success.   Joseph Alois Schumpeter (1934), classed as the German-Austrian school of thought, went against existing views surrounding entrepreneurship as being a risk-bearer and a manager of a company – instead choosing to describe an entrepreneur as someone who tried to destroy commonality within a market, by introducing a game-changing product or service to an industry – characterised by Radical Innovation. Schumpeter derived this idea from Marxist thought suggesting that it was the innovative entry by entrepreneurs that caused and sustained economic growth, acting as a disruptive force, even if that meant extinguishing the value of already established firms. The suggested idea of radicalinnovation in a market causes cycles of “creative destruction” (Schumpeter, 1994, p. 83), within his earlier theory branded an entrepreneur as an innovator who is able to “act with confidence beyond the range of familiar beacons” (Schumpeter, 1994, p. 132). In short, this suggests that entrepreneurs are way-makers who drive the economy forward, they push passed familiarity. In order to go beyond the status quo, one may suggest that innovation is an essential driver of economic growth.   This form of innovation can benefit the original status quo, for example when steam-powered ships were first introduced to the market, sailing ships developed more in the next 50 years than they had in the previous 300 years. This concept could also be categorised as non-acceptance and emphasises that many markets fight back trying to stop radical innovation from destroying normality. However, the market will eventually adapt, causing the new improvements in the market to take over.   One example of a piece of radical innovation was the Apple iPod in 2001. It was a product that changed the face of the portable music industry allowing millions of consumers access to the ever-growing music scene (with over 420 million sales between 2006 and 2014 alone (Statista, 2014)). Steve Jobs was hailed as being one of the greatest modern-day entrepreneurs, with his ruthlessness and immenseclarity about what he sought to achieve.   Israel Kirzner (1973) offered a slightly different view of innovation in entrepreneurship – suggesting that an entrepreneur is someone who discovers previously unnoticed profit opportunities, rather than someone who purely innovates. They stay within the market until the level of competition experienced reduces the profit opportunity. This idea contrasts with other Economist’s views suggesting that it is the ability to see a gap in the market and execute a vision in order to maximise profit. In addition, he also stated that alertness was fundamental to entrepreneurship, allowing an individual to react to market changes quickly. Within the market, however, there is asymmetric information, therefore, the level of knowledge an individual has will dictate the “detection and exploitation of opportunities” (Lechner, 2016).   Amazon can also be described as entrepreneurship through innovation as, without the idea for an e-commerce site, Amazon would not have been created. However, without the production management and coordination, it would not have been as successful. Therefore, innovation was the initial entrepreneurial step, but, resource management has ensured its long-term success.   One of the greatest entrepreneurs of the 21st Century is Elon Musk – founder of SpaceX and Tesla, Inc. Tesla, Inc has a large vision of changing the whole automobile industry with the introduction of electric cars, a radical worldwide change. Elon started with a small start-up company and recognised that in order to change the way that people drive, there needed to be incremental innovation steps – which he highlighted during the Model 3 unveiling conference in 2016.   Elon, during a TED talk interview, stated that he believed that “when introducing a new technology there needs to be three major versions before it can become a mass market product” (Talks, 2013). Firstly, to introduce the world to the electric car, Tesla produced a high cost low volume car, in their second stage two midrange and mid volume cars were brought to market, these incremental steps were designed to slowly introduce a new element to the industry – a luxury electric car, as well as raising funds and capital for their final step. The final stage is to introduce a low-cost high-volume car, the Tesla Model 3. What this shows is that one of the main concepts that are fundamental to entrepreneurship is a vision, not only a vision but a plan to carry out that vision (Tesla, 2016). Whilst innovation, whether radical or incremental, is part of this vision and helps to build substance, it is the awareness to understand the market or industry and see the opportunities that present themselves that are fundamental to entrepreneurship. Of course, what Tesla is creating is innovative, what is more impressive is how they are bringing it to market. Anyone can have or be given a good idea; however, it takes a clinical implementation of a structured plan to bring those ideas to market.   Many Economic theories highlight that entrepreneurship has many different traits and characteristics, one central idea is innovation, can be split into two forms: radical and incremental. In his introduction to the book Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy by Joseph Schumpeter Richard Swedberg, a Swedish Sociologist states that Schumpeter “argued that economic life always starts with the actions of a forceful individual and leads to the rest of the economy” (Schumpeter, 1994, p. xi), suggesting that there is a knock-on effect to the rest of the economy due to Radical Innovation. Interestingly, there are other Economists who agree with Schumpeter’s idea; Cheah (1990), suggested that Radical Innovation can lead on to Incremental Innovation, the innovation discussed early by Kirzner. The abolishment of the status quo enables other, arguably lesser, Innovation to occur in incremental steps. Even though the new ventures threaten “continued viability of existing products/processes” (Paul Westhead, 2013), it stimulates the introduction of new entrepreneurs of a range of new processes and developments complementary to theoriginal endeavour.   Mark Casson, a British economist and academic, drew on different theories regarding entrepreneurship, including those of Joseph Schumpeter’s theory of innovation and Israel Kirzner’s theory of opportunity-seeking, in order to develop a theory that fitted alongside neo-classical ideas. His theory is very similar to that of Richard Cantillon and states that entrepreneurship is the pursuit of risky innovative projects that may contribute to the economy – efficiency and growth. How successful these ventures are, will depend on drive of the entrepreneur and their perceived future rewards such as salaries or profits. Contrastingly to Schumpeter’s views, Casson sees entrepreneurs as risk bearers in the economy. This mainstream School of Thought is one that is arguably most fits with the modern-day definition of an entrepreneur. The Oxford English dictionary describes entrepreneurship as the “The activity of setting up a business or businesses, taking on financial risks in the hope of profit” (Dictionaries, 2017). Those entrepreneurs who are confident in the judgement being made will commit their own funds – or use the funds of another – being optimistic of being rewarded.   If one only used the OxfordEnglish’s Definition of an entrepreneur then one could argue that innovation is not necessary to be classed as an entrepreneur as long as an individual is taking a financial risk, such as spending money to start up a business. However, taking into account the various schools of thought if an individual is only investing money in someone else’s innovative idea and not contributing in any other way to the business they cannot be classed as a true entrepreneur, although they are taking a financial or opportunity risk – as they are foregoing the benefit of using their investment somewhere else.   Using Cantillon’s theory allows anyone who invests in a company to classed as an entrepreneur, whilst more recent theories place more emphasis on the role of innovation rather than purely financial risk. It is possible to take financial riskwithout being an entrepreneur however it is not possible to innovate without being classed as an entrepreneur. The various schools of thought all suggest that an entrepreneur is someone who develops something new, different or deemed more valuable than a competitor or is providing something that others deem superior. Both of these suggestions are a form of Innovation thus it must be stated that Innovation is central to successful entrepreneurship.   To conclude, based on the analysis of different Economic Theories and by looking at the traits of successful entrepreneurs, it must be concluded that Innovation is a central aspect of entrepreneurship, the two terms are links as it is theimplementation of entrepreneurial behaviour that allows innovation to take place. Whilst, it is clear that one does not need to innovate in order to be classed fit into the definition of an entrepreneur, it must be noted that it doesn’t guarantee success. A key theme throughout the theories looked at is Casson’s idea of “reward”; combining this with Schumpeter and Kirzner’s ideas on Innovation it may be concluded that successful innovation, whether it be incremental or radical, that leads to reward is the key theme to entrepreneurship.

According year gone by and welcome what is in

to Sydney Smith a famous English wit, writer,
and Anglican cleric once said, “Resolve to make at least one person
happy every day, and then in ten years you may have made three thousand, six
hundred and fifty persons happy, or brightened a small town by your
contribution to the fund of general enjoyment.” This shows that no
matter your social status always keep in mind everything you gave; it will be
return to you someday. It is time to take a deep breath, and realize that
Christmas and the New Year are two of the most awaited holidays in the whole
year, both represent a charity, peace, love, and the opportunity to be reborn.
Despite equality in the union of family, Christmas and New Year are different
to each other.

begin, both Christmas and the New Year have a different meaning. Thus, Christmas is a holiday celebrated on December 24 to commemorate Jesus’s birth,
son of God. Christmas Day has been a federal holiday in the United States while
on December 31 is not a federal holiday, but it does fall in the holiday season
at the end of the year. However, the New Year is a
day that celebrates the end of a calendar year and the start of a new one. The
date on which the New Year is celebrated differs from every culture and
religion, as they all follow their own calendars.
will be a good way that you can spend time with the family.

Although both of them usually celebrated from
different ways, people celebrate Christmas include
exchanging gifts, decorating Christmas trees or garden with lights, attending
church, sharing meals usually consisting of turkey with family, and friends
waiting for Santa Claus to arrive. A lot of plays and
carols have an aspect of Christmas as a theme while
the New Year is a day of mixed feelings for many people, it is a time to
celebrate the end of the year gone by and welcome what is in store in the New
Year. Many people watch or light fireworks to mark the New Year, drink alcohol
and dance.

In addition, one of the few similarities between these two
holidays is the month. Both of them celebrated on December, the last month of
the year, and everyone has been waiting for this month, very apart from the
gifts, parties and everything it is a moment that you spent with your family,
celebrated at the end of the month. It is a time where you start to meet old
friends, work colleagues, friends from high school, where many meets to
celebrate these holidays. Both of them are holidays in the worldwide, where
everyone celebrates them all around the world.


In conclusion, Christmas and the New Year are two common
holidays, although they are different in the ways of celebrated, the family
unites them. Especially in December is a moment of peace and love, even
non-Christians remember, with due reverence, the Son of God, this is the time
what people forget jealousy, hatred, and selfishness. The spread of love and
peace among humankind is the supreme message of Christmas and the New Year it is
a time to leave everything behind and start a new stage. If you made a mistake,
forget it, and leave it in the past because the new one is there to remedy it
and overcome all those mistakes that you had so you can do something better in
the New Year.

The remedies or by serendipitous discovery. A great deal



The Pharmaceutical
Industry develops, manufacture, and markets drugs licensed for use as medicines.
For this they have a well-equipped Research and Development department.
Pharmaceutical companies are allowed to deal in generic and/or brand medicines
and medical devices. They are deal with variety of laws and regulations of the
government regarding the patenting, testing, pricing and ensuring safety and adequacy
and marketing of drugs. The Indian Pharmaceutical industry is the
second-largest in the world by volume and is ahead to manufacturing sector of
India. The first pharmaceutical company of india was Bengal Chemicals and
Pharmaceutical Works, which still exists today as one of 5 government-owned
drug manufacturers, in Calcutta in the year 1930. For the next 60 years, most
of the drugs in India were imported by multinationals either in fully
formulated or bulk form. The government started to encourage the growth of drug
manufacturing by Indian companies in the early 1960s, and due to the Patents
Act in 1970, the industry got an opportunity to grow. This patent act removed
composition patents from food and drugs, and though it kept process patents,
these were shortened to a period of five to seven years. The lack of patent
protection made the Indian market undesirable to the multinational companies
who had dominated the market, and while they streamed out, Indian companies
started to take their places. The multinationals were market leaders at that
time because of their superior technology. As a result of this, they had gained
expertise in reverse-engineering new processes for manufacturing drugs at low
costs. Although some of the larger companies have taken small steps towards
drug innovation, the industry as a whole has been following this business model
until the present. Introduction to Pharma Industry 28 Research and Development
Drug discovery is the process by which the required drugs are discovered or
designed. In the past most drugs have been discovered either by isolating the
active ingredient from traditional remedies or by serendipitous discovery. A
great deal of early-stage drug discovery has traditionally been carried out by
universities and research institutions. All this requires constant innovation
and research by either the traditional or modern methods, or a combination of
both. Drug development refers to activities undertaken after a compound is
identified as a potential drug in order to establish its suitability as a
medication. Objectives of drug development are to determine appropriate
Formulation and Dosing, as well as to establish safety. Research in these areas
generally includes a combination of in vitro studies, in vivo studies, and
clinical trials. The amount of capital required for late stage development has
made it a historical strength of the larger pharmaceutical companies. Often,
large multinational corporations contribute in a broad range of drug discovery
and development, manufacturing and quality control, marketing, sales, and
distribution. On the other hand, smaller organizations lay emphasis on a
specific aspect such as discovering drug candidates or developing formulations.
Often, collaborative agreements between research organizations and large
pharmaceutical companies are formed to discover any probability of new drug.

HRI the test units were measured while allowing therobots

HRI is a vastly wide research area which express the components of the interactionprocess between the humans and the robots. HRI deeply addresses how the behaviors,intelligence, perceptions of the robots towards human impact in the social adaptabilityand acceptability of robots. So its essential to know what the research ndings in HRI inthe context of humans behaviors and attitude towards the robots, in order to understandsuch components in HDI environment.The perceptions and attitude shown by the human towards robots is a very importantfactor. More speci cally how the reaction of humans having a robot as a companion is acore point of HRI. To assess the humans attitudes and perceptions towards the robots astudy was conducted by Dautenhahn (2005) with 28 participants in a practical settingwith use of supplement questionnaires as well. The results showed that the participantsliked the idea of having a robot as a companion or assistant and few of them preferred tohave a robot as their friend. The most important nding of this research was the humanlike behavior or human like appearance was not an important factor to accept the robotas a companion. Some other interesting results that could be nd was the test unitswere recommended that robot to be highly controllable and they didnt like it when therobots come too near to them. That means still there is a potential gap between fullyautonomous robot and humans. These traits are very important to be considered whenimplementing a social companion drone.20Humans behavior towards the robots can be impacted by how a robot is approachingthe human. A study was done by Dautenhahn (2006) to investigated how users prefera robot to approach them while the humans in a sitting position. The purpose ofthis research was to nd a path planning system for robots. 38 participants in a non-laboratory setting and 15 participants in a controlled setting were contributed in thiscase study. Feelings of comfort amongst the test units were measured while allowing therobots to approach them in di erent directions, distances and speeds. The results haveshown that the test units did not like the approach of robot from the front and it makesthem feel uncomfortable or even like threatening. And it showed that most test unitspreferred the approach of the robot from either the right or left hand side, It doesnt givesan uncomfortable feeling as it approaching from the front. Speci cally most test unitspreferred the approach from the right side. So this provides some insights about theBackground Literature Review 14approaching direction, essential distance between drone and person and the essentialspeed of robot in order to result a successive interaction between robot and human.These concepts also give an idea about how we can utilize these research ndings in thefuture drone companions as well.192.2.2 Human Drone InteractionEven though HDI is an emerging and a newer research area a number of researches havedone with the purpose of evaluating the interaction between drone and humans. HDIcan be mentioned as another sub area of HRI since already the UAVs have approachedthe current trend in world of research forming ying robots which is a novel categoryof robots. As we discussed in the previous section there were so many researches donein the eld of HRI to evaluate the interaction between robots and humans. Up to now,in the eld of HDI also a considerable amount of researches have addressed the humansbehaviors towards drones. Some of those research nding will be discussed in this sectionA case study was conducted by Christ et. al. in 2016 in order to investigate about thedi erent levels of autonomy of drones and how it can a ect the user experience (UX).The study was conducted as a student competition and the students were advised tobuild four drones with di erent levels of autonomy. The evaluation of the perceivedUX was done through 24 semi structured interviews. Two types of autonomy for thedrone were implemented, full autonomy that make all decisions by itself, and semi-autonomous that become autonomous as an alternative when the operator wants it to17. The results of case study showed that the participants liked both fully autonomousand semi-autonomous systems and they enjoyed interacting with them regardless of thelevel of autonomy, but still the semi-autonomous drone was mentioned as the mostlyenjoyed drone type among them 17.In another recent research study by Cauchard in 2016 describes how emotional traits canbe encoded to the ight paths of drones. The study was performed to investigate whetherthree di erent ight patterns which represents emotional states and personality traitscould be recognized by the participants. In this study a concept of natural HDI and howthe natural interaction can be supported by adding an emotional component is discussed.The researchers hope that it would also increase the possibility to create intelligentinteraction between the human and drone. Parallel workshops were conducted to nd outBackground Literature Review 15which personality traits would be expressed best by the drone. By using questionnairesthey discovered how recognizable the emotions would be. The participants were rstasked to observe the drone ying pattern for each ve tasks which represent personality.Then they were asked try to guess the emotion represented by drones behaviour. Theresults showed that it is possible to the participants to identify how the drone behavesto represent a certain emotion. The most interesting nding of this study was theencoding process of emotions to a ying drone, and how the users were able to perceivethose di erent emotions observing their ying patterns. This gives us a idea in how toutilize the drone with di erent interesting approaches in order to make it more social18.Another Wizard-of-Oz elicitation study was conducted by Cauchard et. al. in 2015 toinvestigate how naturally the human interacting with drones using gestural techniques.According to Cauchard There are many advantages of developing drones as autonomouscompanions. Moreover he mentions that an autonomous drones will be vital in the casessuch as outdoor traveling or jogging, since it would be hard to use a remote controlwhile the user conducts other activities. The study results showed that participants feltextremely comfortable interacting with the drones. Some participants were resembledeven as they are with a pet or another humans, by calling the drones by name etc. Theuser study was done as a test session and interaction tasks need to be executed by theparticipants were written in the task cards. The results showed that the main interactiontechnique used by the participants was gestural communication, even though the voicecommands was also used by few participants, many of them felt discomfort when talkingwith drones. But after getting more familiar with the drone, many of them tended touse voice commands. This gives some other useful insight for the implementation ofcompanion drone with di erent capabilities which can attract the humans perception.21