An one, there are those statements that make up

An argument is a statement or statements
that are used in order to try convincing people whether a certain opinion
raised in the statement is correct. It is used to convince someone to a certain
conclusion. The two key components in an argument are its premises and the
conclusion (Cottrell, 2017). A premise is the statement or statements that will
lead to the final formation of the conclusion. In the case of example one, there
are those statements that make up the premises and the conclusion. The premises
statements state where the principal worked previously, how tough he was, and how
he made other colleagues resent him because of his regular encounters with them
while giving them lectures on performance at the school. The conclusion
statement was about a new role the principal had gotten and how he would
continue his intolerable behavior in that new place. This is a good statement
because all its premises match its conclusion. However, it is not adequate for
providing the necessary information. Yes, the principal was harsh at the
previous job but this does not mean that this won’t change at the new position.

Example 2:
Promotional Literature for a Billboard Company

the second example that involves a promotional literature for a billboard
company, the statements that make the premises involve a company that used a
billboard to increase its sales through advertising and that statement of a
doctor looking to increase his sales in his practice. The conclusion statement
refers to the doctor’s solution being a marketing strategy where he too should
set up a billboard to be able to advertise his services to more people. This argument
is not a good argument. It is true that the advertisement worked for the store
but that might not be sufficient intelligence that it will also work for the
doctor. Other factors affect the effectiveness of the billboard advert such as
its appearance, written message, and colors, among others. 

Life at 21 years old to keep the communities’

and Death

While researching
texts written about alcohol and legal drinking age, I found a few authors who
published work about the affects alcohol has on an individual. These authors
often placed the importance of keeping alcohol out of the hands of young
induvial because death numbers will increase. These authors talked about the
numerous reasons as why to keep the legal drinking age at 21 years old to keep
the communities’ safe. My goal in this paper is to put the importance on safe
drinking for anyone over the age of 21 but as well as put all the reasons
behind keeping that the legal drinking age.

Alcohol has
provided many functions for people throughout history, alcohol has played an
important role in religion and worship. Alcoholic beverages have served as sources
of needed nutrients, the have been widely known and used for their medicinal,
antiseptic, and analgesic properties. 
They can also come into play when individuals are trying to enhance the
enjoyment of life. Fermenting grain, fruit juice and honey have been around to
make alcohol for thousands of years.  Foundation
For A Drug-Free World state, “In
early Egyptian civilization these fermented beverages were known to exist. There
is evidence of alcoholic drink in China around 7000 B.C, India between 3000 and
2000 B.C, Babylonians in 2700 B.C. During these periods alcohol was mainly used
for medicinal purpose” (Foundation for A Drug-Free World). Beginning in
the 18th century, the purpose of alcohol started to change and most
governments did not have interest in them. Foundation For A Drug-Free World
states, “In 1920 that’s
when it all changed for the United States, by passing a law prohibiting the
manufacture, sale, import, and export of intoxicating liquors” (Foundation
for A Drug-Free World). In the United States, that’s when alcoholic beverages
became known as “Moonshine” for the production of this alcohol was made in the
night under moonlight in order to see so they were not caught by law. As well
as the transportation of the Moonshine was done during the night for the same

Alcohol comes in a
liquid form and can be bought legally by an adult that is 21 years of age or
older in the United States. Alcohol can have immediate effects on the body after
even a small dose. According to health line, “while a small amount of alcohol can escape the body via
urine and breathing, most of the alcohol a person consumes is absorbed into
their bloodstream” (American Addiction Center). In other words, health
line is informing the public that the full effect is not going to hit you right
away because it will take time to fully enter your bloodstream. Even with the
small amount leaving your body through breathing and going to the restroom it
is not enough to counter the amount in the bloodstream. With the more alcohol
that is consumed the greater of effect it has on an individual’s system. Many
people do not understand what constitutes of a standard drink. According to the
National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, “one 12-ounce beer with about 5 percent alcohol content is
a good example of a standard drink. Five ounces of wine and 1.5 ounces of
80-proof (40 percent alcohol) distilled spirits or liquor are also examples of
standard drinks” (American Addiction Center).
NIAAA’s point is that majority of people do not understand how to
consume a standard amount of alcohol putting others at risk. People are
drinking more than one should in order to still safely operate a vehicle.

Young adults are
in a developmental stage in which they mature physically, mentally, and
behaviorally. They are acquiring the skills that allow them to live independently
growing into self-dependent adults. During this period is marked frequently by
social interactions with peers, exploration of behavior, with an increase of
risk taking actions. Often involves the self-confidence acquired from the use
of alcohol. The brain undergoes enormous structural and functional changes during
the time period of their new life experiences. Based on the group of neurons
that are regularly stimulated also known as plasticity can affects the nerve
cells connected to the brain. “This process eliminates the unnecessary and unused cells resulting in
only the neurons that are meaningful to the body” (NIAAA). In other words,
NIAAA believes that if you add alcohol to the equation while the body is developing
the brain might eliminate cells that are necessary for the future.  Adolescence being such an important time of
brain development that the use of alcohol on the brain can have a negatively
impact during that period. Adolescence in humans is defined as the second
decade of life. NIAAA states, “One brain region where particularly extensive
remodeling occurs is the frontal region of the outer layer of the brain—the
prefrontal cortex—which is thought to be involved in working memory, voluntary
motor behavior, impulse control, rule learning, spatial learning, planning, and
decisionmaking” (NIAAA). NIAAA’s point is
that adolescent time period is the most important time of a humans’ life
because it’s when an individual’s gains and develops all the necessary skills
to be a successful adult. So, alcohol should be left out of the picture since
it can hinder the full development of those skills.

of privileges and responsibilities are granted to individuals at the age of 18
years of age into adulthood. From legally being able to vote, enlist in the
military, move out on your own if you no longer want to live with your parents
but is that the final point of maturity in humans? No matter how smart a teen
may act their brain has not fully develop. The part of the brain that allows
them to make rational decisions isn’t “fully developed until the age of 25” (The
University of Rochester). The University of Rochester’s point is that young
adults don’t fully mature until 25 so by keeping the drinking age at 21 their decision-making
skills are close to fully development taking away that many more opportunities
of making bad decisions.  Recent study
done by University of Rochester found “that adult and teen brains work differently. Adults think
with the prefrontal cortex, the brain’s rational part. This is the part if the
brain that responds to situations with good judgement and an awareness of
long-term consequences. Teen process information with the amygdala. This is the
emotional part” (The University of Rochester). The university’s point is
that adults will take the time to figure out all the outcomes that could
possibly affect their life forever. While teens do not necessarily care or
consider the outcomes that come in the future because they have temporary
happiness. Putting teens into a greater risk of peer pressure meaning that if
an individual is around partners or friends they are 50 percent likely to be a
risk taker around them. With keeping the drinking age at 21 it gives
individuals a couple more years to get past the period where they are thinking
with emotions rather than with logic. Even though some young adults are more
capable of handling things by themselves and other aren’t necessarily ready for
full responsibility. This will keep the number of death tolls down from
drinking and driving within the young adults.

Cool Spot states, “The
death toll caused by alcohol consumed by minors for each year is estimated to
be 5,000 deaths” (The Cool Spot). The Cool Spot’s point is that there
are too many accidents among minors that could be prevented from eliminating
alcohol. Cool Spot also states, “In fact, motor vehicle crashes are the leading most cause of death in
people aged 15 to 20″ (The Cool Spot). Cool spot’s point is that even
without alcohol, motor vehicles are very dangerous and always need to be
handled with care since they are the leading cause of deaths. When alcohol is
put into the equation, the chances of alcohol related crashes are doubled in
teens compared to individuals that are of legal drinking age. According to
Edgar Snyder & Associates, ” if a person under 21 years of age is found guilty of an alcohol
violation,…shall be fined. In addition,…may be assigned 8-12 hours of community
service……suspended license or permit for 30 days for first offense… 60 for
second offense, and 180 days for each subsequent offense” (Edgar Snyder
& Associates). Snyder’s point is that in the state of Texas violations are
taken seriously in order to keep the state safe and disciplined. Texas
alcoholic beverage commission states, if a minor is caught driving under the
influence an “Alcohol
awareness class” might be required along with the suspension of license
of permit (Edgar Snyder & Associates). TABS point is that there are serious
outcomes that can come from driving under the influence one possibility being
killing another individual while trying to make it home. So, the awareness
class informs them how much danger they are putting themselves and others in from
a bad decision.

            A major responsibility in consuming alcohol is to not
over drink which could result in alcohol poisoning. Mayo Clinic states, alcohol
poisoning symptoms consist of ” Confusion, Vomiting, Seizures, Slow breathing, Blue-tinged skin or
pale skin, low body temperature, passing out” (Mayo Clinic). Mayo’s
point is some of the symptoms can claim an individual’s life if not recognized
in time to be treated by a bystander or be taken to the hospital. If someone is
suspected to have alcohol poisoning it is suggested a by stander should follow
these steps; first call 911 to have professional assistants on the way, be
prepared to provide important information such as location of the event and
individuals name if known, never leave the person alone if unconscious wait
until 911 has arrived, and help a person who is vomiting so they do not choke
on their own vomit if laying causing death. Alcohol poisoning can be caused by
what is known as “binge drinking”. Binge drinking is defined by Mayo Clinic as
“a pattern of heavy
drinking when a male rapidly consumes five or more alcoholic drinks within two
hours, or a female down at least four drinks within two hours”
(Mayo Clinic). Mayo’s point is that binge drinking is very unhealthy for an
individual of any age especially under the age of 21 because there is too much
alcohol running through the bloodstream.

            All the alcohol that is entered into an individual’s
bloodstream while the consumption is metabolized in the liver. According to the
University of New York, “the
liver metabolizes alcohol at the same rate for everyone, regardless of weight,
sex or race” (The University of New York). The University of New York’s
point is that weight or sex does not help an induvial to sober up faster to be
of the legal drinking limit in their state. The University of New York also
states, “On
average, the liver takes one hour to metabolize one ounce of alcohol. For most
people, one ounce of alcohol will produce a .015 blood-alcohol concentration” (The
University of New York). The University’s point is to inform readers of the
damage alcohol can have on the liver from the concentration in the bloodstream.

            The law for the legal drinking limit will vary from state
to state. According to the state of Texas, “driving while intoxicated (DWI) means drunk driving, and the
state uses your blood
alcohol concentration (BAC) to
determine whether you’re too intoxicated to operate a motor vehicle
( In other words, Texas DMV believe that the roads should stay safe
for everyone on them to get home safe to their families.  Texas DMV laws state, blood alcohol content “cannot exceed .08%” (
Texas’ point is that if you are driving under the influence any induvial will
be arrested and taken to jail, in order to keep the roads safe for law abiding

            Just because underage drinking has
become a major problem throughout the United States doesn’t mean the legal
drinking age should be changed to 18 years of age. Teens that can’t control
their abuse problem will need assistants from parents to put an end to it.
WebMD state if parents, “feel uncomfortable, ask for help from a pediatrician, psychologist, or psychiatrist.” (WebMd).  WebMD’s point is that as a parent
the subject cannot go undiscussed even if its uncomfortable because negative
life changing event can happen. By doing this it is hurting
not only the United States from greater death tolls but the individual doing
the drinking. It might not be visible to the naked eye but it starts by
hindering their development of the brain that allows them to make rational
decisions. Leading to un-rational decisions that could change or completely end
their life forever.  WebMD state, “Alcohol…abuse
is a leading cause of teen death or injury related to car crashes, suicides,
violence, and drowning” (WebMD). WebMD’s point
is that teens will abuse the ability to buy alcohol at the age of 18 and the purchase
is a receipt for death. For the benefit of everyone, the government
needs to keep the legal drinking age the same.

In May 16th, 1826. Then a lot of land

In the former Cape May County Superintendent Dr. Beesley’s 1876 history, he described the history of schools in Goshen, indicating that the current school was the third structure in Goshen:The first house stood near John McCraven’s about half way between Dennisville and Goshen. It was a small and poor house, and was used for school purposes until May 16th, 1826. Then a lot of land was purchased by Mrs. Hugh Tomlin, where they constructed a school . Harvey Shaw was the first teacher. It was rough and uncomfortable. In 1872, the present new beautiful building was constructed. It was two stories high, and stood directly opposite the Goshen Methodist Church, it was to seat 125 students. It cost $4000.00.   The school house was built to accommodate students through 8th grade. With the younger children downstairs and the older children upstairs.According to the MIddle Township Board of Education meeting minutes, there were two faculty members at the Goshen School: a principal who often served as a teacher for the upper grades and a second teacher for the lower grades.Some upgrades to the school:May 1913- (2) water closets and outhouses installedNovember 1913- Coal heaters installed1930’s- well deepened, fire extinguishers installed and coal bins built1932- bell telephone was connected1936- electricity was wired1941- running water with drinking fountains installed1949- fire escapes installed1959- indoor toilets installedOn March 8, 1962, the Middle Township Board of Education voted that all students be transported to Court House Schools for the 1962-63 school year.In 1963, the school board discussed that the outbuildings at the Goshen school were being destroyed by unknown persons. A few months later the board decided to put the Goshen School House property for sale. On January 8, 1964 the school received 2 bids. A bid from the Goshen Volunteer Fire Company for $1510.00 and the second bid from George A. Biasco for $625.00. On march 25, 1964, the property was sold to the Goshen Volunteer Fire Company for $1510.00.From 1964 until the present, The Fire Department has used the building for a combination of public functions and storage.The Goshen Volunteer Fire Company is currently in the process of restoring the property. With several grants pending with the help of NJ Historic Trust, they will help fund the restoration of the exterior and interior, including the roof,cupola,windows interior walls and floors. The fire company intends to return the building to public use.

talking the field tests that he does with Hauptmann

talking about their Jewish neighbor, “the Schwartzenberger crone”, who will be “gone by year’s end”. Then Frederick gets severely injured because he is different. This overshadows what will happen in the war.   Lastly, the theme of war appears. War takes away choice; it takes away freedom. Werner realizes that the field tests that he does with Hauptmann is actually very cruel. He is realizes that he is taught to detect rebels to kill them. Werner finds this wrong and is troubled by the thought of how cruel the institute has made him, however he cannot change this, he has no power. He feels trapped, he is stuck in this system to support what he thinks is wrong; if he continues to work under Hauptmann, he has to kill other, if he disobeys he will be punished like Frederick, if he leaves he will work in the mines and be sent to war. His life is controlled, no matter what he thinks. Anthony Doerr highlights this theme using the character Fredrick. Werner and Fredrick have a conversation, Fredrick says that there is no such thing as free will, he talks about how his life is all planned out by his parents and how he has no say in it.  The author compares Werner’s life and Marie-Laure’s to show the different people during war. Marie-Laure and Madame Manec are trying to protest, they are doing something about the German occupation. Madame Manec embodies the idea of seizing opportunities; while it is risky, it is worthwhile. War also shows how people react to fear. Etienne’s fear leads him to passively support the German system. He hinders the resistance effort because of his fear.   Chapter 6 Protagonist/s: Marie-Laure LeBlanc/ Werner Pfennig Antagonist/s: Germans Time: 8th August 1944 Summary: Marie-Laure recognizes the sound of the limp of the stranger. She met Von Rumpel when he follows her to the grotto. She hides in the hidden attic. Von Rumpel does not see the secret door, where Marie-Laure is hiding. Werner is still stuck beneath the rubble of the Hotel of Bees. Bernd the engineer dies. Werner finally fixes the radio, but he is only able to hear statics. He scans for frequencies that are broadcasting.   Theme: Firstly, there is a theme of regret and betrayal. Before Bernd dies he tells a story of how he abandoned his father on his last visit. This reminds Werner about how he felt as if he had betrayed his sister Jutta, by shutting her out of his life, and rarely even writing to her. This is a very moving part of the story. It is very dark. The readers relate to the characters easily. This chapter is also very ironic. Both Werner and Marie-Laure are trapped with radios. The radios simultaneously give a sense of isolation and connection.   Chapter 7 Protagonist/s: Marie-Laure LeBlanc/ Werner Pfennig Antagonist/s: Germans Setting :  Berlin, Germany/ Saint-Malo, France / Vienne, Austria Time: August 1942 Summary: The corporal of Werner’s new unit, nicknamed “Neumann Two” takes Werner to Russia. He sees a truck full of dead corpse. After arriving, he learns that Volkheimer is a part of his new unit. They travel in a truck named the Opel attempting to find forbidden radio broadcasts, so they can kill rebels. Werner becomes ill. The unit goes to Vienna, they kill a young girl and her mother because they mistook the clotheslines as radio antennas. Inspired by Madame Manec, Etienne cuts a false door in the back of the floor wardrobe so he could access his radio transmitter in the attic. Etienne and Marie-Laure put Madame Manec’s plan into action: Marie-Laure buys loaf that has a slip of paper with a series of numbers on it, then Etienne reads it into his transmitter. They repeats this, Etienne even riskily broadcasts music occasionally. They begin to broadcast messages from people in the community trying to reach other another. Von Rumpel finds the second and third replica of the Sea of Flames. He goes to Marie-Laure’s house in Paris, and finds the house model, but finds out it is hallow and crushes it. French resistance fighters blew up a bridge using the information given by Etienne’s radio broadcasts. The German commander requests Werner’s unit to locate and destroy the rebels in Saint-Malo.   Theme: This chapter is still in trials. Anthony Doerr uses this chapter to highlight the theme of death. Death impacts Marie-Laure and Werner differently. On Marie-Laure side, the author shows how meaningful death can be. Madame Manec’s death inspired Etienne. It shows how much death can change a person. While Werner passes a truck stacked with dead corpses, showing just how inhumane war makes people. They are all stacked on top of each other, as if each dead soldier was just like garbage. Furthermore, Werner kills innocent people because of his mistake. He is troubled deeply; he finds his own perspective towards all of life tainted by the ways he has hurt other. Readers feel horrified in this chapter; the author purposely described this chapter more graphically to make them feel uncomfortable and realize how senseless the killing of the war is.   Chapter 8 Protagonist/s: Marie-Laure LeBlanc/ Werner Pfennig Antagonist/s: Germans Time: 9th August 1944 Summary: Allied artillery begins shelling Saint-Malo again. Von Rumpel becomes delirious from his illness and attempts to search the house once again. Marie-Laure gets out of the attic for water, and found a Braille copy of a book. She starts to broadcast herself reading, hoping that someone, maybe Etienne will hear her. Werner continues to scan the radio. Regretfully, he and Volkheimer discuss how eager they once were to leave their homes, only to be disappointed. Werner suddenly hears Marie-Laure’s voice in the radio. She paused, “he is here. He is right below me” she whispers and the connection and lost again. Werner feels helpless, he wants to rescue her but can’t.  Theme: The theme in this chapter is hope. Both characters feel hopeful that they will be found.  After fixing the radio, they finally hear someone. This brings hope. Marie-Laure reads her book because of hope. Readers find this a very peaceful chapter even thought the characters are in chaos. It is also very exciting since this is the first the two protagonists connect.   Chapter 9 Protagonist/s: Marie-Laure LeBlanc/ Werner Pfennig Antagonist/s: Germans Time: May 1944 Setting: Saint-Malo, France Summary: Werner and team continue to try to locate Etienne’s radio broadcast. Werner recognized the voice immediately. It was the same French Professor he had grown up with. He does not tell that he found the broadcaster. Alone, he went searching for the house and watches Marie-Laure leave.  Von Rumpel cannot live much longer. He is told that Daniel LeBlanc was arrested because of Levitte, so he visits him. He is given the LeBlancs address. Madame Ruelle informs Marie-Laure that soldiers are invading France. Marie-Laure visits the grotto where she meets Von Rumpel.  As time passes, Etienne realizes that Marie-Laure was gone and becomes anxious.  For the first time in years, he goes outside. Eventually, Madame Ruelle and Etienne find her. Marie-Laure starts to suspect that the model carries the Sea of Flames after Von Rumpel questioned about it. Etienne is arrested after he sets off after curfew because he was trying to locate the German anti-aircrafts guns and broadcasts.   Theme: This part of the story is “approach”, since the readers know that Werner will be stuck under the cellar of the Hotel of Bees from the previous chapters, which leads to the crisis.     Chapter 10 Protagonists: Marie-Laure LeBlanc/ Werner Phennig Antagonists: Germans Time: 12 August 1944 Setting: Saint-Malo, France Summary: Marie-Laure broadcasts Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (braille version), while Werner and Volkheimer listen through the radio. Marie-Laure then plays Etienne’s music loudly, hoping that she will be found. The music surges through the radio, creating hope for Werner and Volkheimer again. They rearrange the rubble around them, creating a wall, and throw a grenade. Von Rumpel heard the music, follows it to the attic but then hears someone enter the house.  This causes his to fall and accidentally set the curtains on fire using a candle. Werner kills von Rumpe, saving Marie-Laure. Werner and Marie-Laure evacuate together, as they leave Marie-Laure places the Sea of Flames into the ocean water, in the grotto to break its curse. Once Werner knew that Marie-Laure was safe, he left her. Marie-Laure gives him the key to the grotto as a memory. Marie-Laure reunites with Etienne. The Allies arrest Werner.  One night, he accidentally walks into a minefield, and dies, Theme: This chapter shows the strength of music. As both Marie-Laure and Werner think they are going to die. Music calms them. They both take comfort in the beautiful complexity of the world. This part of the story is the resolution, it covers “treasure” and “result”, as the Sea of Flames is returned to the ocean. It is also the ending for Werner, as he dies in the minefields.   Chapter 11 Protagonists: Marie-Laure LeBlanc/ Werner Phennig Antagonists: Germans Time: 1945 Setting: Paris, France/ Berlin, Germany Summary: Frau Elena, Jutta and three other girls from the orphanage are sent to a factory in Berlin. Jutta knows that Werner is dead. The war is ending, and the Russians are expected to invade the city. Most women knows to expect Russian brutality; they try to look less attractive, some even drown their daughters. When the Russian soldiers arrive, Frau Elena and the girls get raped. Etienne and Marie-Laure move to Paris and live in the same apartment from Marie-Laure’s childhood. They continue their search for Daniel LeBlanc. Marie-Laure decides to attend school to deal with her grief. Theme: This is the “return”, “new life”, “resolution” and “status quo” of this story. Marie-Laure returns back home, she starts a new life with her great-uncle, the Sea of Flames is back in the sea, and she ends where the story started, back in Paris. This chapter reminds the readers that there are no antagonists in this book. During war, the “good guys” and the “bad guys” are only a matter of perspective.   For Jutta the Russian are the bad, and for Marie-Laure the Germans are the bad. Jutta recalls that while being sexually assaulted, the man was mourning for the death of the people he cared about. The author does not wholly blame any country or person for the war, this suggests Anthony Doerr wanted to express that each individual is capable of both good and bad. There is a theme of war in this chapter. Using the horror readers felt during this chapter to emphasize how terrible and desperate war makes people.   Chapter 12 Protagonists: Marie-Laure LeBlanc/ Werner Phennig Antagonists: Germans Time: 1974 Setting: Paris, France/ Saint-Malo, France Summary: In 1974, all of Werner’s belongings including the wooden model were sent to Volkheimer from an organization. He finds Jutta, and delivers the items to her. Jutta travels to Saint-Malo with her son Max, in the memory of Werner. A local man recognized the model; he provides them the address of the girl who used to live in the house. Jutta sets off to Paris. Marie-Laure is now works in the same museum her father did. Jutta tells Marie-Laure that Werner had died in the war.  Jutta gives the model to Marie-Laure; she realized that Werner had taken the model after they parted ways. She opens it and finds the key to the grotto gate.   Theme: This is the ending of the story. Jutta has a new life, with her son. She returns the model, which is the resolution.   Chapter 13 Protagonists: Marie-Laure LeBlanc/ Werner Phennig Antagonists: Germans Time: 1974 Setting: Paris, France/ Saint-Malo, France Summary: Marie-Laure is now an old woman. Her grandson, Michel plays a game in which he “dies”, he reassure her that he can always start again. Michel is about to turn 12, Marie-Laure told him about Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, the novel she wanted most as her birthday present when she was 12. Her grandson walks her home. She stands outside her house, listening to the sounds of the world, wondering whether the souls of her loved ones are still there. Theme:  This chapter is still the status quo for Marie-Laure. The readers feel relieved that she is doing well. Even though she is back to her original world before the war, something’s have changed permanently.     Work Cited Gregory Coles CliffsNotes on All the Light We Cannot See. 15 Jan 2018 .  

The 50,000 dead and over 2 million displaced as

The Sierra Leone Civil War broke out in 1991, bearing similarity to the situation in Iraq in that it was closely interconnected with the civil war then ongoing in the neighboring Liberia. The civil war devastated the country, leaving more than 50,000 dead and over 2 million displaced as refugees. In 1996, the then military leader, Brigadier Bio, stated that he was committed to ending the civil war and restoring the country to being governed by a democratically elected civilian government. Months later, he fulfilled his promise, handing power over to the democratically elected Ahmad Tejan Kabbah. In 1999, the United Nations agreed to send peacekeepers to Sierra Leone. Two years later, UN forces began to move into rebel-held areas and disarm rebel soldiers. By January 2002, the war was finally declared over.
The Peacebuilding Commission, established in 2005 by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council during the reform process initiated during the 60th session of the General Assembly. During its first year of operation, the Commission focused its efforts on Burundi and Sierra Leone. In 2007, the Security Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone and encouraged the government of Sierra Leone to continue to closely engage with the Peacebuilding Commission. In the same year, the Sierra Leone Peacebuilding Cooperation Framework was issued, which laid down the principles for cooperation and analyzed the priorities, challenges and risks for peacebuilding in the specific context of Sierra Leone. It identified the Peacebuilding Commission’s role as “to bring together all relevant actors to marshal resources and advice on and propose integrated strategies for post-conflict peacebuilding and recovery”; that is, compared with direct involvement in the reconstruction of post-war Sierra Leone, the Commission acts more as an intermediate that investigates local needs, comes up with effective peacebuilding strategies, and channels resources offered by the international community.From then on, the Peacebuilding Commission has held biannual reviews of the implementation of the Framework.
The peacebuilding process in Sierra Leone has been steadily advancing over the years. A major milestone was the 2012 elections, which are widely seen as a core benchmark for peace consolidation. In order to ensure the elections were peaceful, free, and credible, the Commission has led joint efforts with the government of Sierra Leone as well as other major stakeholders to prepare for them, tackling both technical and political challenges.
The elections also marked a new phase of the peacebuilding process in Sierra Leone. In the briefing by the Chair of the Sierra Leone Configuration of the Peacebuilding Commission to the Security Council, several points are emphasized for the post-election period: that some significant peacebuilding challenges, including youth unemployment and combating corruption, are long-term in nature and take sustained effort in spite of past peacebuilding successes; that the United Nations should continue to play a crucial role in coordinating international actors under the framework of a well-developed, nationally owned peacebuilding approach; and that post-election transitions may create strategic and funding gaps, which calls for intensive and sustained multilateral and bilateral assistance.

Engineering making products, for example making a production line

Engineering is the act of using a mixture of sciences and maths to find, solve problems and develop long-lasting solutions to these problems. Engineers generally work in a team to increase efficiency when making products, for example making a production line with specialists focusing on their specific fields. These fields generally include subjects like materials, electronics, structural, mechanical etc. Engineering is much more focused on efficiency and safety whereas a designer focuses on aesthetics and user comfort, in the case of a car, a designer would focus on how streamlined the car would be, how aesthetically pleasing it was, if the controls were in reach and how comfortable it would be for the driver, however, an engineer works to make sure that if it is involved in a collision that the car doesn’t crumple and crush the driver, the speed of the car, the handling of the car and suspension. It is a very technical part and requires an advanced knowledge of many different fields.1.2 Describe different engineering sectorsAerospace: Aerospace engineering has 2 major sectors that it covers, the first being aeronautical engineering and the other being astronautical engineering, some say that avionics engineering is part of aerospace engineering however it focuses more on the electronic side of it. Aeronautical engineering is concerned with the development of aircraft however, Astronautical engineering is concerned with the development of spacecraft. Originally this sector was referred to as aeronautical engineering however as the field became broader to cover engineering in outer space the term “Aerospace” was born. This type of engineer has to deal with the demanding conditions produced by atmospheric temperature and pressure and the structural loads applied to the vehicle itself. This means that disciplines like aerodynamics, propulsion, avionics, materials science, structural analysis and manufacturing are a must. This branch of engineering is the combining of all of these disciplines. Because of the complexity and number of disciplines involved, aerospace engineering is carried out by teams of engineers, each having their own specialized area of expertise.Companies that cover this area:Boeing UkGulfstreamAirbusLockheed MartinAutomotive: Automotive engineering is another branch of vehicle engineering, it incorporates mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering. It is applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, cars etc and their respective engineering sub-systems. It also covers the modification of vehicles. The manufacturing is also included in this sector, this section deals with the creation and assembly of vehicles. Automotive engineers must directly apply mathematical models and formulae in order to create safe and usable products. The study of automotive engineering is to design, develop, fabricate, and testing vehicles or vehicle components from the concept stage to production stage. Production, development, and manufacturing are the three major functions in this field.Companies that cover this area:Emerald AutomotiveJaguar Land RoverVolkswagen GroupToyota MotorCommunications: Also known as telecommunications engineering, focuses on using electrical engineering and computer engineering to increase the ability of communications between people. Many people who work in ICT also classify as this as they concentrate on the communication between multiple computers.The work ranges from basic circuit design to strategic mass developments. A telecommunication engineer is responsible for designing and overseeing the installation of telecommunications equipment and facilities, such as complex electronic switching systems, and other plain old telephone service facilities, optical fiber cabling, IP networks, and microwave transmission systems. Telecommunication engineering also overlaps with broadcast engineering. These usually need a good level of knowledge of computer science, engineering, electrical engineering, chemistry, IT and physics.Companies that cover this area:Southern Communications LTDBTClear Line Communications LTDElectronic: Electronic engineering is a discipline which utilises electrical components to design electrical products such as semiconductor devices etc.  The discipline typically also designs passive electrical components, usually based on printed circuit boards. Electronics is a subfield within electrical engineering which is an academic subject that covers other subfields like  analog electronics, digital electronics, consumer electronics, embedded systems and power electronics. Electronics deals with the implementation of applications, principles and algorithms developed within other fields.This covers many different fields including telecommunications, robotics, electric power control and Aerospace/automotive engineering. Stork Technical Services LtdASH Wireless Electronics LtdProfessional Circuit Design LtdBanair Electronic EngineersMechanical: Mechanical engineering is the broadest field of engineering as it either covers or is covered by another field, it requires a high knowledge of mathematics and physics. This field mostly focuses on the small components and engines.Biomedical: Biomedical engineers focus on using other fields of engineering to better healthcare. This involves the creation of prosthetics, pacemakers, new alternatives for the MRI machine that doesn’t require Helium as it is a limited resource, artificial organs and other such machines. For this field, a high knowledge in biology is needed, chemistry is also important as certain materials are more suited toward certain jobs.Chemical:Chemical engineering applies physical sciences (chemistry and physics), life sciences (microbiology etc) with applied mathematics and economics to produce, transform, transport, and properly use chemicals, materials and energy. Chemical engineers have a vast range of jobs including the creation of power (Including nuclear power and hydroelectricity)1.3 Describe The Skills and Qualities Needed to be an Engineer.The main quality that engineers require is determination. This determination is used to problem solve in many situations, an engineer will face situations that are not linked to the knowledge they already have so they need the determination to build new knowledge. Another quality that an engineer will need is that they strive for perfection, this helps because measurements need to be exact so that it works in conjunction with other parts of what they are making. Teamwork is also important as creating a product on a production line requires heavy communication between layers of the production to ensure all measurements are correct but, the communication between the design engineers and those working in the production line as materials and types of materials are chosen to have a better effect when doing their job. This high level of communication is important as 2 words missed could completely destroy a project e.g if High Impact Polystyrene and Polystyrene were mixed up. Patience and focus are important as this gives engineers the ability to disassemble and rebuild projects to make them work at maximum efficiency, this links with striving for perfection as perfection involves disassembling and or re-starting a whole project to fix errors and iron out faults. A building block for all projects is the will to improve the world even if this involves worsening it for a period of time, this is the case involving nuclear power, this is because nuclear power (which is commonly seen as the best form of power) is dangerous if not controlled but is powerful and helpful if controlled and tested. Technical qualities for being an engineer is the aptitude for CAD design and technical drawing, this is because engineering is the creation of an accurate product, engineers generally need good academic grades in STEM subjects to construct structures such as architecture, transport, machinery and many more. Different skills are required in engineering including accurate drawing, measuring, knowledge of materials and their properties and the ability to operate tools safely. Every product that is made involves engineering skills so that they can be made to a high level of accuracy to ensure a safe and efficient product.

Adiponectin referred to by the ADIPOQ gene and is

(additionally known as apM1, AdipoQ ,GBP-28and Acrp30) is a protein hormone
which controls glucose levels and also unsaturated fat breakdown. In humans it
is referred to by the ADIPOQ gene and is formed in fat tissue. Adiponectin is a
244-amino-acid long polypeptide (protein). There are four separate areas of
adiponectin. The first is a short signal sequence that targets the hormone for release
outside the cell; next is a short area that differs between species; the third
is a 65-amino acid region with resemblance to collagenous proteins; the last is
a globular domain. Adiponectin is a protein hormone that regulates various
metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and unsaturated fat
oxidation. Adiponectin is released from fat tissue (and furthermore from the
placenta during pregnancy) into the circulatory system and is extremely rich in
plasma compared to numerous hormones. Many studies have observed adiponectin to
be contrarily related with body mass index in patient populations. Adiponectin concentrations
rise during caloric limitation in animals and humans, for instance, in patients
with anorexia nervosa.

Deficiency arises when there is low concentration of blood serum adiponectin
levels. This happens due downregulation of adiponectin and the reason for this
is not yet properly explained. The gene in affected people is usually found to
be localised to chromosome 3q27, a region known to affect the susceptibility to
Type 2 Diabetes and obesity.The proper system of regulation of adiponectin is undetermined,
however it could be managed by post-translational mechanisms in cells. A low
level of adiponectin is an autonomous risk factor for giving rise to: Metabolic
disorder , Diabetes mellitus . Lower levels of adiponectin are related with
ADHD in grown-ups. Adiponectin levels were observed to be elevated in
rheumatoid joint inflammation patients reacting to DMARDs or TNF inhibitor
treatment. Exercise induced production of adiponectin increased hippocampal
development and prompted upper antidepressive symptoms in mice.

The most commonly
used drugs used to treat adiponectin deficiency are Thiazolidinedione, which
are a class of heterocyclic compounds. Most of the drugs that belong to this
class have been discontinued or banned due to their adverse side-effects that
do more harm than good. Rivoglitazone belongs to this class of
thiazolidinedione and is currently undergoing research for use in the treatment
of type 2 diabetes. If allowed by the FDA for commercialisation, it has the
potential of becoming a potent drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes,
obesity and other adiponectin deficiency related disorders.



The purpose of
this research paper is to study the effect of gene mutations in the adipoq gene
and hence its effect in the normal functioning of the body, particularly
obesity and type 2 diabetes. Out of the several protein constituents in the
adipoq gene, the one which has been selected for further study is the R112C
amino acid substitution. A successful study of mutation in the above stated
gene will help us design drugs that could have therapeutic effects.

Another purpose of
this study is to evaluate the functioning of the drug Rivoglitazone against adiponectin deficiency, by comparing its function
to that of another known drug, Darglitazone , belonging to the same family. Apart
from Rivoglitazone, another marine component derived drug is to be studied and


Expected Outcome


The expected
outcome of this study is to analyse and study the effects of gene mutation in
the adipoq gene and its consequent effect on the normal functioning of the
human body. The efficacy of the drug Rivoglitazone
and the marine derived drug is also expected to be determined.

Social brings the meaning of websites and applications that

Social media addiction has
become a familiar issue for our community during this globalization era. Social
media brings the meaning of websites and applications that enable users to
create and share content or to participate in social networking.  Whereas addiction refers to the fact or
condition of being addicted to a particular substance or activity. There are
many kinds of addiction that exists, but social media addiction is one of the
addiction that is going worse day by day. Regarding to social media addiction,
there are the symptoms, impact and help to overcome this addiction.

There are a few symptoms to find out if
someone is addicted to social media. One of the symptoms is making a social
media as a first thing to do in the morning. Often, you can see that people
update their status on the media social such as Facebook telling that they just
woke up. Director of Player Health and Performance with Seattle Seahawks, Sam
Ramsden (2016) said that almost every social media addict will begin their
daily routine by slowly and pointlessly scrolling through what you have missed
on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and more during your eight hours of sleep.
Social media takes over every activity is also one of the symptoms of
addiction. Have you ever experience the moment when you are watching movie
while holding your phone, you were actually on your phone while the movie is
playing? If yes, then you are one of the social media addict. Moose A (2015),
writer on Elite Daily once said that as a result the whole experience becomes
less enjoyable. It’s easy to fall into the routine of checking social media
sites whenever you have a chance, but by doing so, we tend to appreciate
reality less. Hence, making a social media as a first to do in the morning and
takes over every activity are the symptoms to social media addiction.

media can also give impact to the people. Social media can impact our physical.
People who often on social media tend to get frequent headaches, discomfort in
the eyes and may not be able to sleep properly. Anxiety UK (2012) conducted a
survey on social media use and its effects. The survey revealed that two thirds
of participants reported difficulty relaxing and sleeping after using social
medias. Other than that, relationship may be affected by social media. You can
see nowadays there are zero interaction between family or friends when they
hang out together. Everyone is more focused on their social media on their
phone than people around them. Harleena Singh (2015) said in her article,
family activity time is now replaced by endless hours of internet surfing and
chatting with people you may or may not even know that results in hardly any
kind of family bonding or interaction with the ones closest to us. Thus, social
media can give impact on physical health and on relationships.

If you are addicted to
social media, don’t worry, there are ways to help you overcome this addiction.
First thing you must do is limit yourself. To limit your time on social media,
you must set a timer on how long you should spend your time with social media.
Although it is difficult to stop when the time pass, you have to be strong and
avoid the temptation to spend more time. Avoid social media by setting a timer
to remind you when it’s time to log off ,15 minutes is a good start and if you
can’t follow the timer, get an app that will force you off (Sasha
Graffagna,2015). Furthermore, get a new hobby is another way to overcome social
media addiction. You should do something that you always want to do but don’t
have time or try learning new skill such as martial art. In fact, when you have
a hobby, you will forget to check your social media application. Having a hobby
will distract and you won’t have to be on social media to feel entertained
(Anastacia,2017). Therefore, you should have strong wills to overcome this
addiction by find alternative ways to not spend more time online.

In conclusion, we find
that someone is overwhelmed by social media by the symptoms that are happening
to them and impact in their lives and there is help on how to overcome the
addiction. Although social media important nowadays, someone should know how to
use it in an effective way as it can give negative impact to people.  A person who have been addicted to social
media need to take a good look of their life and step back from this addiction.
In short, social media can be useful if you can handle it wisely.



Educational students who have grown up with technologies (Prensky,

Educational institutions are facing a greater challenge from today’s students who have grown up with technologies (Prensky, 2001).  The rapid growth of Information Technology and Communication (ICT) (Vallance, 2008), has resulted in a bigger push for educators to use these technologies in the classrooms (Sivapalan & Wan Fatimah, 2010). As such, the education landscape is rapidly evolving to accommodate the increasing use of these technological tools (McLoughlin & Lee, 2010), and to take advantage of their benefits to teaching and learning on a global scale (Gobbo & Girardi, 2001). Research has also shown that technological advancements have a direct impact on the nature of education, as they bring about changes in the roles of learners and educators alike, as well as on the learning process (Mahajan, 2012). These changes thus result in enormous pressure for educational institutions to incorporate technology into the classrooms in order to produce skilled 21st-century workers (McLaren, 2007; Mahajan, 2012). Classrooms that involve a hybrid approach with one or more class sessions per week offered online, or at a minimum, lectures, discussion forums, and possibly practice exercises and assessments offered through an online learning management system. Instructors facilitate learning by structuring in and out-of-class work, clarifying content, encouraging critical thinking, and monitoring progress. However, there is still a lack of confidence amongst educators about the effectiveness of online education (Chung, 2008; Chiang, Chapman & Elder 2010) so there is a definite need to embed sound pedagogies into the creation of learning materials and let these pedagogies be the driver of educational innovation (Koehler, Mishra, Hershey & Peruski, 2004; Raja Maznah, 2004; McCarthy, 2010), in order to engage students in the course content (Tuparov, Tuparova & Peneva, 2004; Chiang, Chapman & Elder, 2010).

During a war, an airplane carrying British boys crashes

a war, an airplane carrying British boys crashes down in the Pacific. All the boys
survive, except for the pilot, who was the only grown up among them.

a handsome boy with long and fair hair, whose father works in the English military,
is the first to be introduced in the story. Along with Ralph is Piggy. Piggy is
a chubby short boy who wears glasses and have Asthma.

finds a conch from the sea, and uses it as a trumpet to call the remaining
survivors from the crash site. Throughout the book, the conch is used as a
symbol of civilization, order, and power. When he blows the conch, he starts
seeing presence of live on the beach. The first boy who follows the sound of
the conch is Johnny, then the twins, few younger boys, and at last, Jack, who
is accompanied by his Choir.  

ask for a chief and they all vote for Ralph to be their leader. Ralph being in
charge now, choses jack to be the leader of the hunting group. Then, Ralph
chose Simon and Jack to go with him to explore the island. In their expedition
they climb a mountain, where they realized that they are on deserted island. They
decided to go down the mountain and go back to other boys. On their way they
find a pig, and jack boldly decides to kill it, but then he hesitates and the
pig runs away.

the conch, Ralph calls on an assembly. He talks about having a fire signal, so
the ships passing by could notice the smoke and could come to rescue them. A
young boy with a huge birth mark on his face from the littluns is pushed
forward by the littuns to talk for them. He asked Ralph “what are you going to
do about the snake thing, it was a beastie”. But Ralph tells them(the litteuns)
that there is no such thing as beastie, but if they ever find such thing then
they will kill it. The rest of the boys were already overwhelmed because of the
fire, so they all start shouting “FIRE” “FIRE” “FIRE” and Jack led them into
the wood part of the island. They make fire using Piggy’s glasses, but soon
after, the fire becomes uncontrollable and burns many tress. The littlun with
the large birth mark vanishes that night. And no one knows what happened to

becomes very jealous, of Ralph having all the authority, so he tries to tell
the other boys that they should spend most of their energies in hunting rather
than maintaining the fire signal. One of the boys help Ralph to make huts, where
they could be safe during storms and rain. Jack takes all the older boys
(including those who should be maintaining the fire) with him for hunting.

While Jack and his hunters are in the jungle, hunting the pigs, a ship passes
by the island, but the fire is already out. And this make Ralph very angry.

When Jack returns with his hunters, Ralph starts shouting at them and so does
Piggy. Jack, who is already not liking Piggy and Ralph loses his temper and hits
Piggy in his stomach, and breaks one of the lenses from his glasses.

hatred towards Ralph is growing in Jacks mind like a wild flower. No one needs
to water it or take care of it, the wild, itself, is helping in its growth.

calls on a meeting trying to set everything right. But, the meeting becomes
chaotic when some of the boys start talking about some sort of beast. The
previous night when everyone was sleeping there was an air battle, far away and
one of the dead parachutists landed on the island, and the boys who were on
fire duty thought it was some kind of beast.

the littluns heared about the beast, they started having nightmares every other
night. Seeing this, Ralph decides that all the older boys (except for Piggy)
will go to the jungle to kill the beast. They searched everywhere but they did
not found anything. They came across a dark cave and because it was night time
and most of the boys did not wanted to go there and search. Ralph decides that
he will go alone, but soon after Jack accompanies him. When they go to the cave
which is located on a mountain, they see the shadow of the dead parachutist,
and fell into thinking that it is the beast. 
They feel frightened and start to run away. Though Ralph explains to
Piggy the mysteries dark thing which he saw on the cave, but still Piggy
remains doubtful.

very next morning Jack opposes Ralph’s power, and he asks all those who are in
his favor to raise their hands, but no one does. Ralph remained their chief.

Jack got angry and he leaves the group. Saying “those who want to hunt and have
fun can follow me”.

enough, Ralph is left only with the twins and Piggy. All the older boys join
Jack. Jack leads his hunters to the “Castle Rock” (which is one the other side
of the island) and they all settle there. Jack paints them all in color,
“behind which they hid, liberated from shame and self-consciousness.” (4:34) they
became savages. Jack decides that he will throw in a feast with the meat which
they will hunt, and he will invite Ralph and the other boys to join his tribe.

of Jack’s hunters are very afraid of the beast, but Jack tells them to forget
about the beast (8:168). The savages go into the forest and kill a pig, and
Jack decides that he will leave the head of the pig on a stick as an offering
to the beast so that he don’t come out to feed on his hunters.

Simon finds out the head of the pig in the forest, and he gets into this
illumination and he starts seeing this head floating into the air and talking
to him. He calls it the “Lord of the flies” because of the ugliness of the head
which was caused by the worms and flies which were roaming around the pigs
face. The lord of the Flies tells Simon that he (lord of the flies) can’t be
killed, and that he is part of them, and he is in them. Simon faints away. When
Simon comes back to his consciousness, he finds the dead parachutist, and he
decides to go down to tell everyone the truth.

and his tribe go to Ralph’s side of the island. Jack take away their fire and
invites them all to his feast.

the twins, and the littluns go to feast with Jack, Ralph and Piggy decide that
they should go to and see what is happening.

food was finished and the feast was over, when Ralph tell all the boys that
they should all go to the huts because of the rain. It was this moment when
Jack orders a dance, and his tribe start rehearsing how they killed the pig.

Simon crawls out of the forest and he gets inside the circle of the dancing boys,
but he could hardly make himself heard because of the storm and the chant that
the boys were singing. The boys start hitting Simon as if he was the beast and
eventually they kill him. That night there was a heavy storm, and it brought
the dead body of the parachutist onto the beach, and it made the boys more
frightened and they all start screaming and running around. 

The next
morning Ralph and Piggy were feeling sad and guilty for what they had done to
Simon the other night. On the other side of the island the savages were not
feeling anything at all. Jack’s plan was, to first hunt, and then later in the
day they will go and steal fire from Ralph and Piggy. Ralph was feeling the
need for more people to keep the fire signal on. It was during sun set when
Ralph gave up on the fire signal and decided to go back to the huts and take

the midst of the night, the savages attacked the huts. They beat the four boys,
and they stole Piggy’s glasses. But the four boys gave tit for tat.

next morning, all the four boys groom themselves very nicely, so that they
could look like civilized people and not savages. They went to the castle rock
to meet the savages, and call on an assembly. When they reach there, Ralph
blows the conch— calling on an assembly, but jack tells him that this is his area
and the conch does not have any value here, on his side of the island. Ralph makes
Jack angry by calling them “painted fools”. Jack rages upon Ralph and he stabs
him with his spear in the chest. But Jack fights back, and in the midst of
exchange of fists between Ralph and Jack, Piggy holds on the conch high and
start shouting at everyone. Trying to bring them back to their senses.

Roger, who was very sadistic and cruel, and also was very loyal to Jack from
the beginning of the story, was standing on top of the hill. He pushed a huge
rock on Piggy from the mountain top. The rock hits Piggy and before anyone
could move, Piggy fells 40 feet down the castle rock and dies.

became very silent. There was no sound of the boys in the island for a moment.

The only thing you could hear was the sound of the waves crashing into each
other. After a moment of utter silence, Jack declared himself as the new chief
and he threw his spear towards Ralph. Seeing all this Ralph runs away.

savages take the twins as their prisoners and make them their gate guard. Jack
as their new chief, give order to the savages to kill Ralph. They were into thinking
that Ralph was hiding somewhere in the jungle.

was smart so he hid near the castle rock, because there, no one would ever find
him. When the night arrived and all the savages were gathered around the fire,
eating and having fun. Ralph crawled to the castle gate and draw the twin’s
attention towards him. The twins told him to go back and to never come back
here again. They gave him a piece of meat and sent him back, and told him to
stay near the castle, so that no one could suspect about him.

next morning Ralph finds out that Jack is trying to burn down the whole forest,
thinking that the fire would burn Ralph too, who according to him was hiding in
the forest. When Ralph sees this, he gets frightened and starts running.

Savages take a notice of him and they start running behind them.

soon as Ralph is exposed in open beach, he falls down and collapses. When he
looks back up, he sees a newly arrived British naval officer. Ralph starts
crying. He cries for losing his friends. Ralph wept for the end of innocence,
the darkness of man’s heart.