Engineering is the act of using a mixture of sciences and maths to find, solve problems and develop long-lasting solutions to these problems. Engineers generally work in a team to increase efficiency when making products, for example making a production line with specialists focusing on their specific fields. These fields generally include subjects like materials, electronics, structural, mechanical etc. Engineering is much more focused on efficiency and safety whereas a designer focuses on aesthetics and user comfort, in the case of a car, a designer would focus on how streamlined the car would be, how aesthetically pleasing it was, if the controls were in reach and how comfortable it would be for the driver, however, an engineer works to make sure that if it is involved in a collision that the car doesn’t crumple and crush the driver, the speed of the car, the handling of the car and suspension. It is a very technical part and requires an advanced knowledge of many different fields.1.2 Describe different engineering sectorsAerospace: Aerospace engineering has 2 major sectors that it covers, the first being aeronautical engineering and the other being astronautical engineering, some say that avionics engineering is part of aerospace engineering however it focuses more on the electronic side of it. Aeronautical engineering is concerned with the development of aircraft however, Astronautical engineering is concerned with the development of spacecraft. Originally this sector was referred to as aeronautical engineering however as the field became broader to cover engineering in outer space the term “Aerospace” was born. This type of engineer has to deal with the demanding conditions produced by atmospheric temperature and pressure and the structural loads applied to the vehicle itself. This means that disciplines like aerodynamics, propulsion, avionics, materials science, structural analysis and manufacturing are a must. This branch of engineering is the combining of all of these disciplines. Because of the complexity and number of disciplines involved, aerospace engineering is carried out by teams of engineers, each having their own specialized area of expertise.Companies that cover this area:Boeing UkGulfstreamAirbusLockheed MartinAutomotive: Automotive engineering is another branch of vehicle engineering, it incorporates mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering. It is applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, cars etc and their respective engineering sub-systems. It also covers the modification of vehicles. The manufacturing is also included in this sector, this section deals with the creation and assembly of vehicles. Automotive engineers must directly apply mathematical models and formulae in order to create safe and usable products. The study of automotive engineering is to design, develop, fabricate, and testing vehicles or vehicle components from the concept stage to production stage. Production, development, and manufacturing are the three major functions in this field.Companies that cover this area:Emerald AutomotiveJaguar Land RoverVolkswagen GroupToyota MotorCommunications: Also known as telecommunications engineering, focuses on using electrical engineering and computer engineering to increase the ability of communications between people. Many people who work in ICT also classify as this as they concentrate on the communication between multiple computers.The work ranges from basic circuit design to strategic mass developments. A telecommunication engineer is responsible for designing and overseeing the installation of telecommunications equipment and facilities, such as complex electronic switching systems, and other plain old telephone service facilities, optical fiber cabling, IP networks, and microwave transmission systems. Telecommunication engineering also overlaps with broadcast engineering. These usually need a good level of knowledge of computer science, engineering, electrical engineering, chemistry, IT and physics.Companies that cover this area:Southern Communications LTDBTClear Line Communications LTDElectronic: Electronic engineering is a discipline which utilises electrical components to design electrical products such as semiconductor devices etc. The discipline typically also designs passive electrical components, usually based on printed circuit boards. Electronics is a subfield within electrical engineering which is an academic subject that covers other subfields like analog electronics, digital electronics, consumer electronics, embedded systems and power electronics. Electronics deals with the implementation of applications, principles and algorithms developed within other fields.This covers many different fields including telecommunications, robotics, electric power control and Aerospace/automotive engineering. Stork Technical Services LtdASH Wireless Electronics LtdProfessional Circuit Design LtdBanair Electronic EngineersMechanical: Mechanical engineering is the broadest field of engineering as it either covers or is covered by another field, it requires a high knowledge of mathematics and physics. This field mostly focuses on the small components and engines.Biomedical: Biomedical engineers focus on using other fields of engineering to better healthcare. This involves the creation of prosthetics, pacemakers, new alternatives for the MRI machine that doesn’t require Helium as it is a limited resource, artificial organs and other such machines. For this field, a high knowledge in biology is needed, chemistry is also important as certain materials are more suited toward certain jobs.Chemical:Chemical engineering applies physical sciences (chemistry and physics), life sciences (microbiology etc) with applied mathematics and economics to produce, transform, transport, and properly use chemicals, materials and energy. Chemical engineers have a vast range of jobs including the creation of power (Including nuclear power and hydroelectricity)1.3 Describe The Skills and Qualities Needed to be an Engineer.The main quality that engineers require is determination. This determination is used to problem solve in many situations, an engineer will face situations that are not linked to the knowledge they already have so they need the determination to build new knowledge. Another quality that an engineer will need is that they strive for perfection, this helps because measurements need to be exact so that it works in conjunction with other parts of what they are making. Teamwork is also important as creating a product on a production line requires heavy communication between layers of the production to ensure all measurements are correct but, the communication between the design engineers and those working in the production line as materials and types of materials are chosen to have a better effect when doing their job. This high level of communication is important as 2 words missed could completely destroy a project e.g if High Impact Polystyrene and Polystyrene were mixed up. Patience and focus are important as this gives engineers the ability to disassemble and rebuild projects to make them work at maximum efficiency, this links with striving for perfection as perfection involves disassembling and or re-starting a whole project to fix errors and iron out faults. A building block for all projects is the will to improve the world even if this involves worsening it for a period of time, this is the case involving nuclear power, this is because nuclear power (which is commonly seen as the best form of power) is dangerous if not controlled but is powerful and helpful if controlled and tested. Technical qualities for being an engineer is the aptitude for CAD design and technical drawing, this is because engineering is the creation of an accurate product, engineers generally need good academic grades in STEM subjects to construct structures such as architecture, transport, machinery and many more. Different skills are required in engineering including accurate drawing, measuring, knowledge of materials and their properties and the ability to operate tools safely. Every product that is made involves engineering skills so that they can be made to a high level of accuracy to ensure a safe and efficient product.