DEFINITION simulation started back in World War II when

DEFINITION

Modelling-A process of creating a mock-up
of something to be made.

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Simulation- The use of computer aided
software for testing and understanding how a system under development will
behave in the real world.

Modelling and simulation
is a discipline for coming up with a level of comprehending the behavior of
part of the system and/or system as a whole. Models are
used extensively to aid in understanding the real system at a particular point
in time or space.

HISTORY

Computer simulation started back in World
War II when two mathematicians Jon Von Neumann and Stanislaw Ulam had a problem
of neutrons’ behaviour. The Roulette wheel technique was suggested by the two and
became successful fix to the problem; this became prominent and found variable v     applications in the business industry. After World
War II new technologies were implemented for military purposes during the war.
In the late 1940s and early 1950s both analog and digital computers started were
used in organization.

Computer simulation was not very popular in
the 1950s as many skilled personnel were needed leading to training costs. In
the 1960s data and the program were both fed to the computer in a batch through
punched cards. Data was taken on forms and keypunched while data processors
developed the programs. IBM provided
the software and hardware that were able to model, simulate the problem and
output solutions in six weeks. During
the late 1980s SIMANIV and CINEMAIV were developed; the latest in simulation
and animation software by systems modelling.

Simulation as a means became deceptive
around the middle 1990s. Big corporations like Universal Data Systems encountered
difficulties when it came to translating the entire plant into a hybrid
flow-shop where only one unit would be sent to the next operation as soon as it
was accomplished at the current task. One plain arrangement for this modification
was the effect on finished goods inventory. Experiments were performed  by using the simulation program coded  in GPSS/ PC (Minuteman) using an IBM PC/AT. The
complete package took a month to simulate and the results were progressive with
the eventual transformation of the entire plant to a flow-shop environment as
compared to the innovative batch environment.

IMPORTANCE OF MODELLING AND
SIMULATION

CURBING OF RISKS IN EXPERIMENTS-Most of the
experiments that are carried out in the engineering field can result in a great
deal of damage. The use of simulation ensures that this instance of causing
damage to people is avoided. For example in pilot- training no real airplanes
are used but a computer simulated environment is used for training. This is
important because it safe-guards the life of the learner and it always prevent
the airplanes from being damaged. Another important example is the use of
simulation in nuclear testing. Nuclear labs manufacture dangerous nuclear
weapons that if they detonate can cause catastrophic damage to people and the
environment. Simulation is used to test in order to ensure that the nuclear
weapons do not go off unplanned.

IT SAVES TIME MONEY-Building a system from
scratch requires a lot of materials and manpower, this translates to using
large sums of money in order to finance it.Modelling and simulation ensures that
a system to be created/made is just 
modelled without actually having to build the system. It also prevents
situations where a system with wrong dimensions or ineffective is built. A
great deal of time is also conserved as construction of a new system but this
is not the case with modelling and simulation as the results and working of a
system are instantly provided.

IT ALLOWS TESTING OF EVERY POSSIBLE
FAULT-During modelling and simulation the whole part of the system is put to
test to figure out how it works and to establish if it has any glitches that needs
to be corrected.

IT PRODUCES ACCURATE RESULTS-Modelling
ensures that accurate data is fed into the system which in turn is simulated to
produce accurate output. Simulation produces perfect results because there are
no outside disturbances or perturbations.

IDENTIFIES THE STRENGTH AND WEAKNESS OF A
SYSTEM-The proposed system is put under test to investigate if it achieves the
task that it is being designed for. This ensures that a system’s strength and
its shortcomings are put to the test and if possible rectification is made to
the system.

APPLICATIONS OF MODELLING AND
SIMULATION

SIMULATION
IN SCIENCE-Models and simulations are important in
research. Models are used to represent the real systems through either physical
reproduction at smaller scale, or as mathematical models which enable dynamics
of the system to be presented in form of a simulation. This brings about the
possibility of exploring system behaviour in an articulated manner; it is usually
either impossible or too hazardous in the real world.

WEATHER
FORECASTING-Weather forecast is prepared by gathering
as much data as possible about the existing state of the atmosphere (particularly
the wind, temperature and humidity) and using the knowledge of atmospheric
processes (through meteorology) to decide how the atmosphere progresses in the
future. During the period of data assimilation process, information retrieved
from the interpretations is used in combination with a numerical model’s most current
forecast for the time that observations were made to create the meteorological
analysis.Mathematical weather forecast models are computer simulations of the
atmosphere.

PILOT TRAINING-A flight simulator a device called
a flight simulator is used extensively for pilot prospect. The simulator theatrically
re-creates aircraft  and the environment in which it is supposed to
fly in for pilot exercise, design, or other purposes. It comprises of  duplicating the equations that rule how
aircraft fly, how they  react to
applications of flight gearshifts, the effects of other airplane systems, and
how the airplane reacts to exterior factors such as air turbulence, air
density, wind shear, precipitation, cloud.