Amir next important move to coming closer to his

next important move to coming closer to his father expectation was by coming
back to Afghanistan and saving Sohrab, which he soon finds out it is his nephew
and Hassan son. Amir
feels that by doing this good deed, he is proving that he was always there for
Hassan all along and is removing his guilt from the past action. Regardless,he had failed
Hassan when they were both kids, and also letting him get raped. Amir think
this is a form of redemption for him and being the man he needs to be so can
live up to his father expectation. When rescuing Sohrab, Amir is forced to face
his enemy Assef, who he fights and defeat with the help of Sohrab. He uses a
slingshot to hit Assef’s eye, letting Amir and Sohrab to escape. “What was so
funny was that, for the first time since the winter of 1975 I felt at peace. I
laughed because I saw that, in some nook in the corner of my mind, I had been
looking forward to this”(pg303). This quote explains how Amir feels calm, and
happy after Assef almost tried to kill him. In his point of view, he thinks taking
that beating from Assef is him finally showing that he would do anything for
Hassan, and in a way, finally redeeming himself for sins he did in the past.

But even though he does not defeat Assef by himself, he has confronted him with
and lived up to his father words by being a true man he is today and saving his

Long term goals of the organization are jointly determined by the company leaders and managers. At the time of determination they also frame the vision and mission statement of the company defining the objectives and goal of the organization. As per David & David,2017,at the time of writing vision statement customer perspective is to be considered. The reason behind this logic is that the customer is the target audience and it is very important for the company to connect with its audience so that they can gain their trust and increase business. Once vision and mission statement is finalized, it is shared with the employees and is at the front line of everyone’s mind as for building and promoting agenda of the company.

Citigroup is one the financial industry leaders of todays. It was founded in 1812. New York is the main base of company. It has been a trendsetter for many years in banking services and products. The main mission of company is to ensure growth and progress for their customers in both commercial and consumer aspect throughout the world.


The mission statement of Citi is to perform as a reliable partners to their clients by giving trustworthy financial services which ensure growth and economic progress. Their crucial activities are to safeguard assets, lend money, make payments and to enter into capital markets on behalf of their clients. They are having experience of 200 years in helping their clients meeting the difficult obstacles and to welcome its greatest opportunities. Citi is a global bank i.e. an organization which connects millions of people throughout hundreds of countries and cities. The mission statement of the company is a demonstration of the company’s zeal to deliver financial services and products that are regulated to strengthen and improve their client’s financial interest. The company takes pride in being energetic and competitive about their approach to recognize and passionately indicate solution which meet the need of their clients. It can be seen easily that on global scale company is dedicatedly making a positive and good impact on the communities. 

Table amphitheatre of the City Bowl and the Table

Table Mountain (Dutch/Afrikaans: Tafelberg) is a mountain and prominent landmark in the City of Cape Town, South Africa, and is known for its distinctive flat top. Its proximity to the city and the panoramic view of the surrounding ocean and beaches makes the landmark a popular tourist attraction, where visitors are allowed to hike up the mountain or go up via a cable way3. It is also the home of a number of endemic fauna and flora and forms part of the Table Mountain National Park.HistoryThe area surrounding Table Mountain has been settled by the Khoi and San people some 2000 years ago4. The European expansion era of the 1500s brough along the region’s first European visitors, with the Portuguese explorer, Antonio de Saldanha, being the first recorded European to have climbed the mountain in 15035, naming it Tobao de Cabo (Table of the Cape in Portuguese).Between 1896 and 1907, the British occupiers completed the construction of 5 dams to supply the port city of Cape Town with fresh water6. Demand has since outstripped the supply from the mountain’s dams, so they are largely left unused, but still visible and accessable. In 1926, the city commissioned the construction of the first cable way to transport visitors to the mountain top7, approximately 1km above sea level (up to that point, visitors had to climb up and down the mountainside). Construction was completed and the cable way was capable of transporting 25 passengers at a time. In 1997, the cable way was upgraded and the cars are now capable of transporting 65 passengers per trip while providing a panoramic view of the city with a rotating platform. In 2011, Table Mountain was voted as one of the 7 New Wonders of the World8.FeaturesTable Mountain is the largest feature in a mountain and hill range located within the City of Cape Town. The main feature of the mountain is its distinctive 3km level plateau and is flanked by Devil’s Peak and Lion’s Head mountains on either side of it. This range, together with Signal Hill, forms the natural amphitheatre of the City Bowl and the Table Bay harbour. The highest point of the mountain is 1086m above sea level. Table Mountain is often covered by clouds, sometimes referred to as the ‘table cloth’ by locals, formed by the region’s infamous south-easterly winds. Folk-lore attributes this cloud formation to a smoking contest held between the Devil and a Dutch pirate named Van Hunks. When this cloud cover forms, the locals often quip that it looks like Van Hunks is challenging the Devil again.

During life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” Nowhere

During the Jacksonian era, the people of the United States believed Jackson was a man of his word. His view that he proposed to society was not fulfilled to its full extent. The “Guardians of Democracy” didn’t live up to their name because they were more interested in what their best interests were. In attempt to live up to their word, the Jacksonians failed to provide political democracy, individual liberty, and equality of economic opportunity. To continue, the Jacksonians so called viewed themselves as the guardians of the United States Constitution but their actions did not back up their words. Jackson abused his power when he started a war with the bank. Once he realized that he couldn’t destroy the bank, he decided to weaken it by removing the government’s from the bank. “Is there no danger to our liberty and independence in a bank that in its nature has so little to bind it to our country? It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes.” (Document B) This was the words he said in his veto message and he thought he was doing what seemed right but was only hurting the country drastically. The country lost a valuable financial institution and had a broken banking system that affected the economy for over a century. He took advantage of their powers, so how could they be called “Guardians of the United States Constitution” if their the ones abusing it. The Jacksonsonians viewed themselves as guardians of equality of economic opportunity which they also failed to fulfill. Yet, the lower class didn’t have the same privileges as rich people. The government represented the rich more than the poor because they could vote and obviously if they have money, they have more property. In the Declaration it states “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” Nowhere in the constitution does it state that property was a main concern to the government. To add on, in document E, it states “A band of Irishmen of the lowest class came out of Duane Street from the Sixth Ward poll, armed with clubs, and commenced a savage attack upon all….” This shows that the lower class was treated so differently that they started a commotion hoping that there would be change within society. Moving on, there wasn’t individual liberty to all classes so they also didn’t live up to their word on this. To start off, mostly all of the Jacksonians were slave owners. Even Jackson himself was a slave owner and didn’t have a problem with owning slaves because it was beneficial to his lifestyle. Jackson had mistreated blacks, indians and immigrants. An example would be the trail of tears as shown in Document G. It’s a picture of the indians which are called cherokee indians and they were forced to go to Oklahoma. Jackson didn’t say anything to the Southerners when they committed this act and therefore he had failed to put his ideals in action. How could he call himself a guardian of liberty when his actions showed otherwise. Andrew contradicted himself and everything he had said about liberty was a lie because he didn’t even follow through with his own words. Lastly, everything that was talked about had to do with political democracy. Maybe Andrew Jackson meant well when he said everything in his speech but obviously saying and actually doing it is two different things. The way the Jacksonians viewed themselves was actually the opposite of what they showed society. Jacksonian Democracy didn’t live up to their full extent to prove that they were guardians of the United States Constitution, political democracy, individual liberty, and equality of economic opportunity.

Aircraft me the constant evolving and exciting nature of


 Aircraft Maintenance Management       

University of London

Statement Prepared by Matthew Boraman


In my lifetime, the number of
air passengers have nearly triple to 4 billion people and according to the
International Air Transport Association (IATA), that number will double again
by the early 2030s. The rapid advancement of the industry has led to many new
challenges and striking a balance between profits and safety is even more
crucial today than ever before. I would relish the opportunity to build upon my
experiences as a licensed engineer and lead a team to succeed in keeping
aviation as safe but efficient as possible. I intend to pursue a career in aircraft maintenance management
so that I can be part of this continued growth which will undoubtedly
lead to many new challenges that will require MROs (Maintenance Repair and
Overhaul) and more importantly aviation managers to continue to adapt and
overcome. Managers who innovate and implement new,
dynamic strategies will no doubt re-write the future of the aviation as we
continue to see rapid growth in all markets. During my time based in Nigeria, I found I had to be very adaptable
as I was responsible for supervising local Nigerian trainees as part of the
nationalisation program. My time in Nigeria taught me valuable skills which
will be helpful on this course, such as the ability to prioritize my workload; including
how to manage multiple people with a positive attitude as well as communication
skills with a different culture to my own.


Whilst always having a keen, wider interest in
aviation from a young age, I decided that I wanted to become a licensed
aircraft maintenance engineer as this offered me the chance to work up close on
some of the most advanced machines in the world. During my apprenticeship at
Farnborough College of Technology I had the opportunity to work not only on
helicopters, which I later became licensed on, but business jets and commercial
airliners. It highlighted
to me the constant evolving and exciting nature of aviation that is available.  This coupled with the capacity to apply my
engineering knowledge and my natural curiosities to the industry among others
are the reasons I became a LAE (licensed aircraft engineer). I quickly found
that I had a passion for aviation and with my self-motivation; by the age of
only 21 I had self studied my modules and became the youngest person in my
company to receive a basic EASA B1.3 license. The five years since receiving my
license and type rating on the Sikorsky S92, I have had the opportunity of
working abroad in diverse locations such as Norway & Nigeria on VIP, Military
and oil and gas aircraft. Working on such a range of operations has taught me
how to manage a full work schedule whilst maintaining quality and safety as
well as personal working relationships with diverse cultures, which will
certainly help me through the course and beyond in my career as an aviation maintenance


There is no doubt to me that Aviation
Maintenance Management at the University of London will refine my abilities and
equip me with the necessary skills to move forward and make a positive impact
on the future of aviation and meet these new challenges head on. I am
enthusiastic and ready to make the transition from engineer to manager by
building on skills such as report writing and my knowledge of regulatory bodies
and procedures. Looking into the future of my career I wish to
become a form 4-post holder and implement new safety systems that will keep
aviation the safest form of transport.  I
hope I will be successfully accepted on to the course, as I will able to expand
on my ideas and knowledge.



Seven to make your Seven Seas experience positive.As always,

Seven Seas Pool & Spa proudly announces the addition of Sealy & Tempur mattresses in addition to our line of products & showrooms.  Both of these products have most desired traits of memory foam support and no motion transfer across the sleeping surface.We are renowned for building quality in-ground pools and providing special attention you won’t find at other companies. As you already know At Seven Seas, we offer the widest selection of hot tubs for sale in Pittsburgh as well as peace of mind. Now we decided to close the circle/triangle with  Sealy & Tempur mattresses and offer you the best possible swim, soak and sleep experience.Triangle of health.Pools:Swimming is one of the best exercises in which you’re able to get a high quality workout and keep stress level on your joints as low as possible. Swimming gets your heart rate up while your lungs get a workout. It’s a great exercise that burns calories and should be carried out few times a week in order to gain maximum benefits to your circulation, heart, and lungs.Hot Tubs:Among many health benefits like reducing stress level and blood sugar level, relaxing in a hot tub will also improve circulation and therefore heal sports injuries, as the heat can improve muscle recovery time.Mattresses:A memory foam mattress distributes your body weight evenly by spreading your weight across the bed’s surface. Also, a memory foam mattress helps your spine to stay in a neutral position and support your lower back. With a mix of pressure point relief and support in memory foam, these mattresses help reduce pain while preventing it as well. Not to mention a huge boost in your overall sleep quality.Take a moment to discover the new mattresses or call/email to set up an appointment to visit a showroom and speak to one of our certified professionals. We are looking forward to your satisfaction and welcome your feedback. We’ll do all we can to make your Seven Seas experience positive.As always, thank you for choosing Seven Seas Pool & Spa.

In way is Salim. From the very beginning of

In another scene in the beginning of the film, the police chase Jamal, his brother, and their friends through the slums as they were illegally playing cricket on a landing strip. The children are able to get through the maze-like alleys and intersections quickly while the police are seen struggling. The music distinctly from India is up-beat and the fast paced scene is filled with more vibrant colors that greatly represent Indian culture. As the scene plays out, the camera zooms out and the viewer sees how vast this slum is and the great number of people living there. Certainly too many for the amount of space that there is. The cinematography from just the first scene shows the great divide between the wealthy and the poor, it shows what Jamal came from and the journey he took to get where he is in the present moment. Later in the film, Jamal takes an American couple to see the Ganges River, the camera pulls back to a long distance shot, showing how colorful the scene is. It’s a contrast to the slums, here people want to visit, tourists from the outside. The slums are reserved for Jamal and the people forced to live there. The viewer is showed how Jamal is able to adapt to his surroundings with his charm making him relatable to the viewers.With regard to characters in the film, Boyle does a great job with the brothers, Jamal and Salim. Throughout the film, there didn’t seem to be a character that would do anything to help out Jamal. The person that would lookout for Jamal the most was himself, he was his own protector. Prem Kumar tries his best to bring Jamal down. Maman, a gangster isn’t much better and Javed, the last man to capture Latika, (the brother’s childhood friend) is awful. Yet the person who stands in Jamal’s way is Salim. From the very beginning of the film, Salim is leading the darker path, he stays a thief while Jamal tries to lead a better life. Throughout the flashbacks that are shown, Salim is the one that keeps Jamal from finding Latika. Jamal, Salim, and Lakita are captured in their youth by Maman, a gangster. While they all escape at first, Lakita is recaptured. She becomes his most “prized possession,” and is going to be sold into prostitution. Luckily the brothers come back and are able to rescue her only for Salim to assert his dominance over Jamal and takes Lakita from him. Salim gives her to his new boss, Javed. When Jamal finds Latika once again in Javed’s compound, he wants her to escape and she agrees only for Salim to find her, capturing her once more. Boyle pits the brothers together creating a tension for the film keeping the viewer engaged making the film the thriller that it is.The film Slumdog Millionaire is a thriller, Jamal, Salim, and as well as other characters live in chaotic worlds, loving, dangerous, and greedy. The film captures their lives perfectly in the slums, on the streets, and on the set of the show. As Jamal and Salim grow up together, Salim constantly stands in Jamal’s way but in the end gives into his better side to help Jamal succeed. Showing a realism of family and the world that we live in. They live opposite lives, both just trying to survive and in the end they show that no matter what, the love they have for each other is stronger than anything else. Again, the cinematography captures the essence of this film and brings it alive for viewers around the world with the use of settings, camera angles, and the characters within the film make it engaging and powerful from beginning to end.

From to three stages including ‘before teaching hour’, ‘while-teaching

From the foregoing, anxiety
can thus be explained as an emotion characterized by feelings of tension,
worried thoughts and physical changes which can affect performance. Lang (1968) classified the symptoms of
anxiety into a system of three-responses: verbal-subjective, overt motor acts,
and somato-visceral activity. In this system, the symptoms of anxiety include
worry, avoidance, and muscle tension. The American
National Association of School Psychologists (2004) also points out that
anxiety affects people’s feelings, body response, behaviors, and thoughts.
According to the Scottish Department of Clinical Psychology (2005),
an anxious person experiences physical feelings and worrying thoughts which
make it hard to do even simple tasks.
Eyesenck (cited in Gelman, 2004) contends that anxiety comprises two
distinct components: worry and emotionality. According to her, worry is the
cognitive aspect of anxiety whiles emotionality relates to the physiological
aspect. She adds that these two components of anxiety create a feeling of
tension and nervousness among student-teachers. This view is supported by the
American National Association of School Psychologists who posits that the
central characteristic of anxiety is worry, that is, an excessive concern about
situations with uncertain outcomes. Sammephet
& Wanphet (2013) observe that teachers’ anxiety is a major concern not
only to experienced teachers but also to student-teachers. They add that the
negative impact of anxiety always has a strong influence on the teaching
performance of student-teachers particularly in the first encounter with
students in the History classroom.


Stress among prospective

Stress experienced by
prospective teachers has attracted an increasing amount of attention over the
past ten years or so.

According to Ngidi & Sibaya (2003), findings of
empirical studies indicate that a high level of anxiety among student-teachers
may be tied to various negative consequences such as class control problems and
classroom disruptions. McKeachie (cited
in Sammephet & Wanphet, 2013)
divides student-teachers’ anxieties into to three stages including ‘before
teaching hour’, ‘while-teaching hour’, and ‘after teaching hour’. During the
‘before teaching hour’, the student-teacher is worried about planning lessons
or preparing materials for a successful lesson. During the ‘while-teaching
hour’, teachers are worried about unexpected situations, among which are the
teachers’ anxieties over interaction with students, over time management, over
classroom management as well as over the presence of a supervisor. In the
‘after-teaching hour’, the anxieties still remain because the teachers are
worried about feedback from their supervisors especially if the feedback is
unfavorable. MacDonald (cited in Wagenaar, 2005) identified the
following factors as the main reasons that make student teachers feel constant
pressure: lack of role clarification, not knowing the expectations of the host
teacher, feeling the need to fit into existing practices and teaching styles,
the lack of time to talk to the host teacher as well as the actual evaluation
procedure. Bhargava (2009) also
cited six anxiety inducing areas for student teachers during teaching practice.
These are lesson planning, classroom management, heavy workload, time table of
the school, evaluation by a supervisor, and less preparatory time before
teaching practice. Turan (2011)
revealed that student-teachers are anxious about factors such as evaluation,
classroom management, pedagogy and staff relations and that female
student-teacher are more anxious compared to their male counterparts in the
teaching practicum. He again found inconsistencies in the way student teachers
are assessed, varying expectations of supervisors related to their performance
in class, and the poor quality of feedback given to student-teachers by their
mentors and supervisors as other areas of anxiety for student-teachers.

The following paragraphs of
the literature dwells on three major anxiety inducing areas which are heavy
workload, classroom management, and supervision.

1) Heavy workload

Every student teacher is
expected meet the standard required of a professional teacher. As such they
engaged in all forms of activities, be they academic or non-academic that are
part of the school system. According to Kyriacou
& Stephens (1999), coping
with the general workload of being a teacher tend to scare many
student-teachers. They opine that despite the fact that student-teachers
normally have a much reduced timetable, they are faced with having to undertake
many tasks as well as teaching topics for the first time. This means that the
time they need to devote to planning and preparation, finding and developing
appropriate teaching materials, mastering the subject matter, and conducting
the necessary assessment of pupils’ progress, including marking any written
work, all takes much longer than it would for an experienced teacher (Kyriacou & Stephens 1999). Ghanaguru,
Nair, & Yong (2013) identify lesson planning as a problematic and
anxiety inducing area especially for student teachers. Bharvaga (2009) explains that lesson planning induces anxiety
when what is planned fail to match up with what actually transpires in the
classroom and student teachers have to mentally re-adjust or replan their
written lesson plan. According to her, some student-teachers report of
sleepless nights during teaching practice, as they have to prepare lesson plans
and teaching aids for a number of periods the next day. This is enough to make
student-teachers nervous. Turan’s (2011) study also found that planning,
preparation, teaching, testing and doing some office work was agreed upon by
80% of student-teachers as an important source of anxiety. Again it was found
that some supervisors preferred simple lesson plans whiles others expected a
detailed lesson plan. Detailed lesson plans was found to be boring and
stressful to the student-teachers as they had to rehearse the plan many times
and implement it in the classroom, thus, adding up to their anxiety. Ankuma (2007) also points out that
the anxiety level of student-teachers are increased by the demand to spare time
for and be involved in all co-curricular activities of the school as well as
write their projects. In a study on student-teachers’ concerns during teaching
practice, Kyriacou & Stephens (1999)
reported that student-teachers indicated a sense of tiredness and, in some
cases, sheer exhaustion. Also, most of them imagined how they would cope with a
full-time teaching post on taking up a first appointment. Similarly, Tomlinson (1995) pointed to how the
sheer intensity of the experience of being a student teacher, based on the
physical demands it makes and the high level of uncertainty they face, can lead
to high levels of stress. Capel (1997)
in a study on changes in practicum students’ anxieties and concerns after their
first and second teaching practices also pointed out that student-teachers
complain of too many instructional duties making them feel under pressure most
of the time. These studies indicate how heavy workload during teaching practice
induces stress and anxiety in student-teachers, not excepting those in the
field of History

2) Classroom Management

Effective classroom
management is defined by Chamundeswari
(2013) as a climate emphasizing and conducive to proper learning, good
behavior and positive inter-personal relationships. She adds that classroom
management is a major area of concern for teachers as ineffective management
leads to serious conditions of indiscipline causing damage to the conductive
climate for learning. Kyriacou &
Stephens (1999) support this view by noting that a major area of concern
for practice teachers is maintaining good discipline in the classroom and
dealing successfully with pupils who misbehave. They reported in their study
that the student-teachers referred to misdemeanors such as noisy behavior in
class, cheekiness in corridors, talking when the teacher is talking as
management issues that caused them exhaustion. Preece (cited in Kyriacou & Stephens, 1999) reported that
discipline problems often led to high levels of anxiety in student-teachers. He
also found that in some cases, a high level of anxiety by students during
teaching practice actually appeared to be a cause of discipline problems.
Another study by Tuli (2006) showed
that student misbehavior in school served as a de-motivative factor that
discouraged student-teachers to accomplish their task effectively. Mapfumo, Chitsiko, & Chireshe (2012) studied
teaching practice generated stressors among student-teachers in Zimbabwe and
reported that the introduction of the mentees as ‘student-teachers’ posed
management problem in their classrooms. According to the report, the fact that
they (mentees) were introduced to the learners as student-teachers demoralised
the student-teachers and also gave learners in the school the courage to
undermine the authority of the student-teachers in and outside the classroom.
The respondents thus attributed difficulty in managing classrooms to difficult
learners who disrespected especially the female student teachers. Sammephet & Wanphet (2013) adds
that the reason for the anxiety in managing student behavior is the
unfamiliarity with secondary school students as student-teachers had
microteaching experience with university students. Also, according to a study
by Turan (2011), 72% of the respondents
reported that having lack of knowledge about the pupils they worked with and
lack of experience as to how to cope with various problems regarding classroom
management created anxiety.

In her study, Bhargava (2009)
also found that in some of the schools visited by student-teachers, the impish
behaviour of the children caused disturbance in the class and impeded effective
classroom management. She attributed classroom management problems to
student-teachers inability to identify with the children, or the fact that the
topic to be taught by them was already covered in the class by the regular
teacher. Goh & Matthews (2011)
also noted that participants reported that classroom management was their most
worrisome issue. The foregoing classroom management scenarios add up to the
tensions and anxieties the History student-teacher goes through during teaching

Indian in India that there are service providers who


Indian Market  





India is a rapidly growing economy. The middle class is becoming affluent
day by day. With the increase in disposable income, India is attracting
business Investors and marketers. This applies to the segment of Beauty and
Wellness too. Statistics show that India will be a more promising market than the
US (which is the largest market in the world currently) and also the Europe.


The beauty and services industry of India has seen exponential growth
last couple of year. The market players have been seeing highly visible
motivation among the consumers towards concept of grooming and beauty. The
online segment of the beauty and wellness Industry which is a new entrant to
the beauty and wellness industry has well integrated itself. Consumers are ready
to spend time and money to pamper themselves in India.

The Indian beauty Industry is growing much rapidly, at a growth rate of
15 to 18 % which is twice as much as US and Europe. The reason behind such a
tremendous growth is the changing lifestyle and fast paced globalization along
with the growing need for collective identity among the Indian women.


TO satisfy this consumer base Innovation is also a key factor, the
significant point has been the growth of E-commerce. Successful retailers are
always one step ahead of time. They are using online channels along with Brick
and Mortar models to capture the Indian Market.


The rising affluence of the expanding middle class due to fast development in
Technology and consumption patterns is the driver for this. The new market
entrants are focusing on expanding to Tier II and Tier III cities as these
markets provide similar potential as their metro counterparts. There is such a
tremendous growth in India that there are service providers who have also
started exploring new venues for rejuvenation like airports and hotels. These
spas offer 15 or 30-minute dry foot massage, shoulder and back massage, etc.

This changes are very new to the conservative Indian society which earlier
relied majorly on Home-made remedies and products.




                       Graph 1.1:
Market size of beauty and wellness Industry


statistic depicts the market size of the beauty and wellness industry in India
from 2012 to 2017, by category. In 2015, the Indian counter sale of beauty
products amounted to about 27.6 billion Indian Rupees.


                   Graph1.2: Revenue of
cosmetics and personal care market

in the Cosmetics and Personal Care market amounts to US$5,912m in 2017.

market is expected to grow annually by 11.1 % (CAGR 2017-2021).



Keeping all these factors in mind our team has chosen the Indian Market
for expansion of Treat well.


LIFE CYCLE: The Industry is in growth stage in
India. The possible reasons are as follows:

Decreasing in
rural population rapidly.

Huge scope for
product differentiation and superior services

No or less market
penetration for the segment

1.1: Industry life cycle



The number of international players in this segment is been currently
increasing. Now even the gender bias of the Industry is seeing a gradual shift,
because the earlier women centric Industry is now seeing an increased interest
from men also. Existing players depend on Franchising route because it’s
convenient and easy to maintain. The tremendous growth poised by the Industry
has also attracted a lot of Investors who are ready to fund expansion plans of
this segment of business.

At the same time we also have to take into consideration the potential
threats of this glamorous Industry. These are the lack of skilled labor,
training institutes and the higher cost to operate.


This report is aimed at analyzing the macroeconomic factors and the
potential threats. We have also analyzed India alongside other potential
markets like Brazil and China.










A.  Goods and services Tax


Indian Government passed the bill for the Goods and Services Tax (GST)
and was put into effect from July 1, 2017.


The GST at 18% holds at different for the different verticals for the
beauty and wellness Industry. Even though this is a single based tax system,
the service sector of this Industry like the salons will see a negative impact
when compared to the service tax which was 15% previously.


Single Brand Retail


The Department of Industrial policy and Promotion has now agreed upon
Single Brand Retail, this will help companies to improve their ownership,
broaden brand awareness and drive future growth. India’s single brand retailing
is valued at approximately $7bn and is expected to reach at $20-25 bn over the
next 5 years.




·      The Average spending
capacity of women in the family has considerably increased (2000-3000 INR per month).


the progress of time, health and wellness as a concept has taken up a
collective desire, with increasing emphasis on the individual’s desire for
social acceptance, exclusivity and collective welfare.


influenced by changes in society and in the lifestyles of individuals, this
change has also been accelerated by extraneous factors like globalization and a
greater awareness of the need for wellness among individuals.




SOCIAL FACTORS: The important aspects in
this category for a new company entering a multi ethnic society like India will
be the effect of the company on the society and how do they deal with it.

Keeping this in mind the following factors are being narrowed down.


three major social factors for Treat well are

rising affluence

the country’s continuing and unique pattern of

fundamental shifts in family structures.




terms of spending, the two top consumer categories—elite and affluent—will
become the largest combined segment by 2025, accounting for 40% of consumption
compared with 27% in 2016. This is very advantageous for the company as these
are the target consumers majorly.


country’s continuing and unique pattern of urbanization


40% of India’s population will be living in urban areas by 2025, and these city
dwellers will account for more than 60% of consumption. These are the group of
people who will easy access to the Treat well platform and can cause a
significant growth.


shifts in family structures


proportion of nuclear households, which has been on the rise during the past
two decades, has reached 70% and is projected to increase to 74% by 2025.


makers in nuclear households—younger and more optimistic than those in joint
families—base their consumption decisions more on lifestyle considerations and
the need to “keep pace”




is becoming more and more technologically driven, which is a very positive
aspect for a company like Treat well.


number of online buyers in India will climb to 300 million to 350 million by
2025.With the increase in online buyers, we expect the total value of e-retail
to reach $130 billion to $150 billion, or 8% to 10% of total sales, by 2025.

reasons behind the rising adoption of e-commerce channels include the strong
value proposition offered by online merchants, proliferating payment platforms,
strengthening delivery logistics, and significant financial investment in the



 Legally, it is easier to start a new business
in India. The Government is more welcoming to FDI. It takes lesser time and
simpler procedures to open a new business. India also has a lot of workforce
employed in this sector, making it even more simpler for new entrants. Companies incorporated in India are primarily regulated
by the recently enacted New Companies Act.

The New Companies
Act, amongst other provisions, lays down the detailed provisions regarding
qualification, appointment, remuneration removal, retirement of directors,
conducting board and shareholders meetings, passing of resolutions, related
party transactions, the maintenance of books of accounts and the preparation
and presentation of annual accounts 



Accessed 16th November 2017


online  Accessed 18th November 2017



Accessed 16th December 2017




Accessed 16th December 2017
























O the amount in 2017. OCR Company raise funds

O&C Resources Berhad (“OCR” Berhad) is a public listed company which
incorporated on 28 July 1997 as an investment holding company. It was
established by Dato Tee How Cut. It manufactures and exports condoms, baby care
accessories in Malaysia, Europe and Africa. It operates through manufacturing, trading,
construction, property development, and others segments. It is located in Petaling Jaya,
Malaysia. Based on their products
brands, it named ‘Japlo’ for baby products and ‘Romantic’ and ‘Playsafe’ for

       Based on their financial
standing, it has current assets and current liabilities with 101,481,981 and 15,940,606
in 2016. In 2017, it has current assets and current liabilities with
124,093,361 and 38,505,755. OCR Company does not have any liquidity problems in
both years and they have enough capital to pay its debts. Share capital is
increases from 57,120,200 in 2016 to 68,745,171. Under cases Borland’s
Trustee v Steel Bros & Co Ltd (1901) 1 Ch 279, it defines the share
are the interest of shareholder measured by a sum of money for purpose of liability
and interest in. It is good in their current share capital because they gain extra
capital allotted dividends to shareholders in 2017. Irredeemable convertible
preference shares are decreases from 33,070,635 in 2016 to 32,232,195 in 2017. An irredeemable preference shares defines
an investors who issued it cannot get their capital back which has no maturity period
to be redeemed. A reserve is increases from (4,627,099) in 2016 to 1,176,758 in
2017. Reserve capital is a part of uncalled capital that cannot be used by
company and it only used for backup purpose that the creditors have a guarantee
fund return when the company is winding up. This company has prepared reserve
to their creditors and they rise up the amount in 2017.    

     OCR Company raise funds
purposely they want to develop RM204.94 million projects in KL city centre. They
plan to develop a service apartment block with an estimated gross development
value of RM204.94 million within the vicinity of the Petronas Twin Towers. Therefore,
they plan to raise through combination of fund-raising exercise internally
generated funds and bank borrowings.



     During the financial year of 2017, OCR company raised its issued
and paid-up ordinary shares from RM57,120,200 to RM68,745,171. The first way they
raising the funds are issuance of 9,317,920 new ordinary shares from the
exercise of warrants from 2011 until 2016 at the fixed price of RM0.35 per
warrant. The second way is issuance of 2,560,000 new ordinary shares from the
exercise of Share of Issuance Scheme (“SIS”) at the fixing price of RM0.33 per
share. The third way is issuance of 16,768,800 new ordinary shares from the
conversion of 16,768,800 Irredeemable Convertible Preference Shares (“ICPS”) with
combination of one ICPS and RM0.45 in cash. Additionally, they did not issue
any debentures in their company. Besides that, OCR Company also raises their
capital by borrowing from bank. They borrow long-term loans and short-term
loans to increase their funds.

      In my opinion, I mostly prefer that
issuance shares to the public is the most appropriate to company because when a
lot of shareholders invest capital to the company, the company equity will
increases. Debentures are the creditors who lend money to the company and need
to pay the debts back plus interest charges. Besides that, if the company is
out of capital, they do not need to pay the dividends to shareholders. An
issuance share is much better than debentures. Under Section 375(1), debenture
holder has the right to appoint a receiver when company has breached a
debenture instrument, then the receiver will enter and take the possession property
of company. It will destroy the company capital going to winding up and
shareholders will leave the company. As my conclusion, I will choose issuance
of shares to public to avoid the creditors have the rights to take away our
company properties and convert it into money.