ADHD entails a genetic and chronic
brain disorder that impedes one’s capacity to accomplish functioning skills
that support learning: memory, attention, and concentration. ADHD begins in
childhood but can persist into adulthood. It should be diagnosed and treated
early to save the patient unnecessary suffering. This paper will respond to
level one and level two questions. Level one question is, which cultural
traditions affect treatment? Level two questions are: Are Hispanics less likely to get diagnosed with
ADHD in the US? Does culture, Genes, or Environment cause ADHD? Is it true French kids don’t have ADHD?
ADHD is not an American
condition. However, a majority of the people believe so because it is a
commonly diagnosed behavioral disability in the United States’ classroom
environment. According to Moon (2011), this condition affects an average of 4%
of the school-going children in the United States: over four million children
and adolescents aged between four and 17 years live with ADHD in the United
States. Faraone, Sergeant, Gillberg, and Biederman (2003) add that scholars
have based their research of ADHD on the United States for over 40 years.
Furthermore, it is through the study of this issue in the United States that
enabled the American Psychiatric Association to define behavioral traits
affiliated to this disorder and come up with an appropriate diagnostic
technique. As a result, the prevalence of studies in which researchers focused
more on the United States than other countries led to the belief that it is an
American disease that does not affect other parts of the world.
traditions and factors account for different treatment and diagnosis patterns
for ADHD (Moon, 2011). In countries that practice Confucianism, ADHD treatment
remains relatively low as majority of the children may not be diagnosed with
the condition because its doctrines advocate morality. Thus, parents will
nurture children to embrace harmony through developing moral behaviors in line
with their age, gender, and family to retain their social status. Such children
are unlikely to portray unsocial behaviors, which define ADHD. However, western
cultures have high treatment rates for ADHD because their traditions support
high levels of independence and autonomy in decision-making. During the
learning and developmental process, western schools encourage students to
practice autonomy when adhering to the societal standards and values. As a
result, children make independent decisions that characterize their normative
behavior (Moon, 2011). Therefore, it is easy to detect unsocial behavior that
characterizes ADHD and subject the affected child to treatment.
unlike their white counterparts, are unlikely to be diagnosed with ADHD.
Hispanics and African Americans among other minority races are diagnosed and
treated for ADHD less than White children with African Americans being
diagnosed at 2/3 the white children’s rate even though they have greater
symptomatology (Morgan, Staff, Hillemeier, Farkas, & Maczuga, 2013). The
rate is even lower for Hispanics. Also, children from minority groups are less
likely to receive ADHD medication than White groups.
France does not
support ADHD as a biological disorder and does not consequentially apply ADHD
medication for treatment. Alternatively, the French meticulously investigate
the root cause of the unwanted behavior. They have discovered that the roots
are in the child’s environment, specifically from school relationships,
friends, and family. However, American psychologists consider ADHD a result of
biological causes (Wedge, 2012). In France, ADHD is managed through family
counseling instead of drugs like in America (Hodgkins, Brod, & Asherson,
2011; Wedge, 2012).
ADHD impacts white
children more than other cultural groups (Morgan et al., 2013). This might be
attributed to applying the wrong approaches. This is reinforced by the fact
that French children are unlikely to be diagnosed with ADHD than American
children: French children have ADHD but at lower levels than the US. Prevalence
in France is between 3.5% and 5.6% of youth (Lecendreeux, Konofal, &
Faraone, 2011). Perhaps an essential thing would be to consider other useful
approaches to dealing with the issue such as family counseling or therapy
sessions that do not involve medications.
should be diagnosed and treated early to save the patient from unnecessary
suffering. This paper responds to level one and two questions, whereby the
level one question sought to establish which cultural traditions affect
treatment. The level two questions focused on ADHD in relation to races and
cultures. The research proved that ADHD is not an American disorder as it
affects other countries as well. The Level One question unveiled that cultural
traditions affect its treatment. Therefore, this paper informs readers that
they should view ADHD as a condition that can affect any person, regardless of
race, and should focus on behavioral change rather than adherence to cultural
standards during treatment.
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P. L., Staff, J., Hillemeier, M. H., Farkas, G., & Maczuga, S. (2013).
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Wedge, M. (2012, March 8). Why French Kids Don’t Have ADHD. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/suffer-the-children/201203/why-french-kids-dont-have-adhd?page=4