According Kimmel, 2010,p.455). Evidence demonstrates that violence is a

According to Every town Research for Gun
Safety, there have been 242 school shootings in America since 2013. School
shootings are a type of mass shootings that occurs periodically, yet these
specific events are the most emotionally impactful in American schools but also
worldwide. This phenomenon   is described
as a “rampage shootings that take place in school settings, that involves
multiple victims and it involves one or more shooters who are students or
former students”(Newman, 2004,p.50). The Columbine legacies, Virginia Tech are
the pioneers of school shootings.  As the
general public continues to fabricate general assumptions on these
circumstances, therefore the problem is still unanswered and as a result may
aggravate these offender`s behaviours .The purpose of this research is to examine the issue of school
shootings in the United States of America through
the use of a multidisciplinary approach. The disciplines of sociology will look
at, gender, peer relationships, and the small communities factors. The
disciplines of psychology will look at the shooter’s profile, and its
motivations. The disciplines of politics will look at the gun control policy,  the effectiveness of school security measure,
and the Virginia Tech Assessment Model

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At the
sociological level, gender is a contributing factor for these perpetrators to
commit school shootings. When examining historical cases of this phenomenon, there
is a common pattern in the population of perpetrators. White males are solely
responsible for these school shootings. (Kimmel and Mahler, 2003,p.1443). These
individuals are pressured to conform to their genders (p.1446). Hegemonic
masculinity is a desired minimal standard of behaviour for men. (Donaldson, 1993).
It is primarily based on traditional gender roles. This ideology is   about  
men being the authoritarian figures in private and public institutions.
Researchers found that the shooters are in engaged in activities that seem to
deviate from the ideology that has been prescribed to them. (p.1447). As a
result they become a target of entertainment to their peers (Kimmel et al,
2003,p.1447). Their behaviours are an example of how they encounter several
consequences when they do not become followers of this masculinity script
(Kimmel et al, 2003). Unfortunately, these victims believe in these feelings of
being failures and worthless (Kalish and Kimmel, 2010,p.455). Evidence
demonstrates that violence is a requirement for masculinities (Kalish and
Kimmel, p. 450). These offenders reacted by shooting their peers as a process
of clearing their names. (Kimmel, et al, 2003 p.1447). In short, masculinities
can contribute to individual’s behaviours to commits horrendous school
rampages. Since their peers shame their masculinity, these perpetrators become
victims of bullying.

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 School shooters commit these acts due to them having
been the victims of bullying; the issue is an on-going- case that hinders an
individual educational achievement. According to the National Association of
School, Psychologists about 160,000 children miss school everyday due to fear
of bullying (Newman, 2004,p.64). The targets are usually the ones that appear
to be physically or psychologically vulnerable. It is important to note that
the age of the victims should not be neglected (Leary et al, 2003). Bullying
can negatively impact a student`s self esteem at an early age (Leary et al,
2003). These victims are heavily picked on, heartbroken, and betrayed by their
own friends (Leary et al, 2003,p.207). In the midst of their pain, they might seek support from their
teachers; unfortunately their teachers misguide and favour other students above
them and as a result, they may feel emotional strain. (Newman, 2004,p.98). In
search of their identity, they seek approval from others by making false
stories about themselves. (p.131). Their plan deteriorates because their peers
have instilled a negative representation of these offenders (Newman,
2004,p.131). The researcher demonstrate how these offender`s happiness is
measured by their sense of belonging in their schools. The way small
communities respond to these offender`s behaviours can also be a factor.

 It
is important to note that perpetrators can cause trouble even in communities
were violence is minimal. In fact, “60 percent of shootings have taken place in
rural areas”(Newman, 2004.p.112). The school shootings that have occurred in
these communities have a strong sense of what Robert Putnam defines as social
capital (p.113). This term means that people are supportive towards one another
(p.113). However Newman argues that this theory is not helpful for the safety
of the small communities. Prepatotr`s family member are  often times unaware of their children`s
behaviours (Newman, 2004,p.117). Since these communities are focused on
maintaining their relationships, when they are  
aware of the perpetrator’s threats, they do not tell because they do not
want to disrupt their environment (Newman, 2004,p.122). In consequence, since
there is an absence of security measures in small communities, the enforcer may
grasp they opportunity to commit murderous crimes. Interactional relationships
and societal norms explains the shooter`s decisions to kill random victims,
however when looking at the individual factors, many of them are in conflict
with themselves and are desiring for public attention they see these shootings
as a means to solve their problems.

At the psychological level, mental illness
is a common factor when discussing  
these shooter`s actions. Even though some rampage shooters are diagnosed
with mental illness, it does not represent the overall population (Metzl and Macleish,
2015,p.242). However, in order for one to understand a shooter`s profile it is helpful
to distinguish between the different types of personality disorders. Dr. Peter
Langman sorts rampage shooters intro three categories: Psychopaths, Psychotic
and traumatized (2009,p.21). Psychopath shooters are individuals that are selfish,
these shooters will never be content with themselves and their communities They
are unwilling to be concerned about people`s needs (Langman, 2009,p.21). They
express their needs   trough the acts of coercion and
aggressiveness. These perpetrators master the art of masking their character (p.23).
Andrew Golden is an example of a psychopathic shooter. On March 24 1998, Andrew
and his friend Mitchell, commited mass murder (p.21). Their young ages indicate
how they are fascinated by the theme of violence (Langman, 2009,p.21). In fact,
psychopaths demonstrate their cruelty by inflicting extreme pain on humans and
animals. (p.23). Further, psychopaths are narcissist individuals (Langman,
2009,p.38). They view themselves as nonconformist meaning that they act
according to their own rules (p.45). These shooters rather want to be the main
source of influence (p.45). As a result they when they are pressured to obey
authority, they express their frustrations by automatically shooting people (Langman,
2009, p.45).

Psychotic shooters differ from psychopaths
and they are broken down into two categories: Schizotypal and schizophrenia
personality disorder (Langman, 2009,p.49). Schizotypal shooters cognitive
abilities are impaired compared to their peers. Their sense of identify is
altered due to the lack of mutuality among their friends, and they are
emotionally distant from their social communities (Langman, 2009,p.59). In short,
these shooters hurt innocent victims because of how they perceive themselves (Langman,
2009,p.59). Their pessimistic thoughts hinder schizotypal shooters to find ways
to improve their condition (P. 59). The Schizophrenic shooters are in a
constant battle with their inner thoughts, and therefore they are viewed as
strange individuals. (p.75). These shooters randomly kill innocent people
because they believe that it is their moral obligation to defend themselves against
their imaginary thoughts. (Langman, 2009,p.77). Michael Carneal is an example
of a shooter that has been diagnosed as a schizophrenic. On December 1st
1997, he entered the school building with five guns and killed a group of
people .(p.77).Schizophrenic become restless because they are  deeply rooted in the belief that people are
going to harm them (Langman, 2009,p.77). Also, their reason for their killing
is prominently caused by strain of others judgment, which can negatively impact
their consciousness (p.88).

Traumatized shooters come from families
where members are emotionally and physically disconnected from one another (Langman,
2009,p.106). There is a recurring cycle of violence in their families and where
they are likely to be victims of physical abuse (Langman, 2009, p.107). Jeffrey
Weise is an example of a traumatized shooter. On March 21,2005 he killed his
grandmother and his classmates (p.118-119). Along with this experience, these perpetrators
are left to figure out life on their own because their parents are incompetent
to provide them the right guidance. (p.118-119). These school shooters open
fire as way to cope with their distress. (Langman, 2006, p. 126). These
shooters as a result of their personality disorders feel that they lost the
meaning of life and are unable to become resilient from their experiences. The
desire of public acknowledgment can be another cause for these shootings.

School shooters seek fame though killing
multiple victims; they see it as an opportunity where their names become a
discussion in popular culture. Larkin (2009), explains, “The body count almost
always innocent bystanders, exists primarily as a method of generating media attention”.
For these offenders, they are knowledgeable about the media and understand how it
can impact people` lives (Larkin 2009 p, 1322). As a result, through their
actions, the attention that they received justifies their personal
gratification. (Larkin, 2009,p.1322). Since any of these shooters are in inner
conflict with themselves, they are persuaded by the notion of “going out in
blaze of glory (Newman, 2004,p.251). This reflects their values and that they
will do whatever it takes to achieve their desire for fame (Newman, 2004p.251).
As a matter of evidence, Harris stated: :Isn’t fun to get the respect were
going to deserve”? (). Furthermore, the foreshadowing themes of violence in
their writings are common for these shooters and it is overlooked by many individuals
(Newman, 2009,page 256). Also, future perpetrators that relate with these shooters,
see their actions as a way a of preserving these traditions. (Larkin,
2009,p.1312). In short, these shooters are intrigued by how their shootings
triggers emotional sensitivity to human beings. Looking at the damagaed caused
by school perpetrators it is important to explain how lawmakers and school
systems can implement policies in response to this phenomenon.

The debate about gun control is essential for policymakers
and law enforcement. Kopel (2015) criticizes guns supporters for overlooking
the failures of this policy. He highlights that individuals, specifically
criminals are knowledgeable about universal background checks laws. As a result,
these individuals may find alternatives to access firearms (Koppel, 2015,p.3).
A shit from background checks to tightening economical policies will achieve desired
results in terms of firearms regulations (Lafollette, 2011,p.276). Gun controls
supporters believe that the availability of guns negatively destabilizes a
community (Lafollette, 2011,p.273). On the contrary, gun control advocates generalize
every firearm, for this reason the argument of guns being dangerous is wrong
(Kopel, 2015,p.10). There are some guns that are dangerous in terms of their
capacity in comparison to others ( p.10). However, magazine guns are effective
for individuals that find themselves vulnerable in a particular situation (p.10).
In sum, as school shootings and firearms continue to be a research of interest,
the debate about restricting guns will be unending. For this reason, it is
important to focus on one of the security measures implemented in schools.

School resources officers is a common security measure in
response   to school shootings.
Governments value the importance of school resources as way to regulate school crime
(Addignton, 2009,1431). Government financially invest in this security measure,
that is why there is an increase of school officers in elementary and in high
schools. However, school security may hinder students learning environment, and
they may be disconnected from the school resource officers (Addignton,
2009,p.1437). Further, there is a need for in depth research about the long-term
impacts of school resource officers in terms of reducing crime (Addignton,
2009,1435). Researchers focus on the relationship between school resources officers
and crime rates (Na et Gottfredson, 2011,p.7-8). Results demonstrate that the
likelihood of school resources reducing crimes is scarce (Na et al, 2011,p.24).
In short, although school resource officers is a desired security measure,
researcher recommend that there is need of development of school resources in
terms of their contributions to reduce crime. The Virginia Tech assessment model
is an effecting program in responding to school shootings.

A threat assessment model is a guide that
determines the degree of seriousness of a person`s intentions (Cornell, n.d,
p.4). Trough the use of a decision tree process, school administrators develop
solutions to resolve the conflicts that influence a student`s threat (Cornell,
n.d, p.5). Their primary purpose is to acquire a student`s background in order
to identify the right threat (p.5). After their evaluation, they categorize the
threat in two categories: Substantive and transient (Langman, 2009 p. 207).
Substantive are more alarming because of its violent nature (Cornell, n.d, p.6).
Therefore, the administrators conduct a safety evaluation that includes a law
enforcement investigation and a mental health evaluation of the student (p.6).
Despite its effectiveness, threat Assements can also be complicated (p, 208).
Perpetrators sometimes make threats for the sake of making others afraid of them
(Langman, 2009,p.208). A second reason is because some perpetrators are intrigued
of being mysterious; therefore they will not make a threat (p.208). There is a
need for students to be alert when they know that their peers has revealed
their intentions because it is significant for the well-being of the school
environment (P.208). Threats Assements can be used as form of rehabilitation
procedure .In sum, threat Assements help schools to make rational decisions for
student`s misbehaviour.

Despite the sensitivity of school shootings,
these events occur infrequently. It is impossible to generalize these offenders
because their intentions may vary. Their reasons may be a combination of
factors that that leads them to commit shootings. Marginalization and stigma
can negatively impact a perpetrator’s well being and as result it influences
their actions. Many of the prerepatratrs believe committing rampages is a way
to cope with their mental illness. This research can challenge people to revaluate
their perceptions of school shooters and be more awakened by the shooter`s
intentions.