Abstract- economy, bad weather conditions which lead to crop

Abstract- The GDP (Gross Domestic Product)  of
most countries in the world are based on the agriculture contribution of that
particular country. The agriculture contribution in GDP are due to the present
conditions of weather in the whole world and the losses incurred due to this
weather condition in the field of crop. In the present conditions the new
technologies and progressive fertilizers used in the field of farming actually
does not reached in the hand of farmers till date. In this paper a concept for
automated watering system in farming is introduce which uses wireless sensors
technology for detection of moisture in the soil suitable for farming using a
smart phone application which will play the important role for farming. The programmed
watering system to plant for farming purpose using Arduino system and an  android application is used for this
particular work. Even this application of android will provide information’s to
the farmers related to agriculture like costs of seeds, level of moisture
required, amount of water required, which type of soil needed, forecast
weather, fertilizers to be used and pesticides required.  

Keywords: Farming, Arduino
UNO, Programmed Watering System, Andriod application, Hygrometer Sensor, GDP
(Gross Domestic Product).

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I.                  
Introduction

Many
sectors related to agriculture are the pillars of world’s economy as they are
the principal means of livelihood in rural areas of most of the countries in
the world. The financial value of all the complete goods and services produced
in the country in a precise time period is referred to as GDP. Agriculture has
been contributing largely to GDP to many countries over the years. One can take
the example of India i.e. in 2012-2013 agriculture contributed to 13.9% of the
total GDP 1 and employed 47% of the total workforce population2. If one
take the example of India, the efforts done by the central government, state
government and the community have been successful in achieving a production of
264 MT of food grain during the year 2013-2014 34.

It
has been seen that the contribution of agriculture to GDP is not
straightforward i.e. non-linear from the year 1951 to 2014. There are many
reasons which are responsible for this decline like diversification and growth
of Indian economy, bad weather conditions which lead to crop loss, Framer’s not
having knowledge of new technologies which they can use for the betterment of
overall profit from agriculture and its related sectors. In spite of all these difficulties
farming is a basic source of work and plays a significant role in
socio-economic growth of countries.

To
improve the above conditions discussed, one can make use of new technologies in
agriculture field. In recent times, the practice of mobile phone has become a
common mode of communication in whole world regardless of the age group.
Majority of the people uses android phone which is having android as an
operating system and are becoming popular because of user friendly and good
features like internet browsing through handset and 3G and 4G, Wireless LAN connectivity,
hardware like GPS, accelerometers.

If
one talk about India, the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, has
taken various steps in the interest of farmers for their growth as well as
countries growth. The mKisan portal inaugurated in the year 2013 July by
Honorable President of India has received as of 1,85,40,07,285 messages,
5,74,40,63,746 and 237,777 advices till 8th of April 2015 5. The
stock availability with dealers of seeds and fertilizers was made available
weekly/daily at Rs. 5/month/dealer 5. In India applications like Krishi Ville
6, Kissan Kerala 7 are an effort to deliver information regarding farming
to the farmers through internet.

The
current conditions of farmers are not very good in most of the countries. There
are various reason related to this conditions such as high cost of life e.g.
education, health etc, poor management is also one of the reason to their bad
conditions. In India it is assessed that more than a quarter of a million
Indian farmers have committed suicide in the past 16 years. Thus it is
important to improve the living style of farmers with the help of new
technologies implementation.

The
use of mobile application which has been suggested will work as farmer’s supporter
in the field. These mobile applications will provide important agriculture
information like forecast of weather, prices of crops, costs of fertilizer and
seeds, about pesticides to be used, type of soil required for a particular
seeds and moisture level required. Therefore this mobile application will be
very useful for farmers as they will be able to seek information regarding
agriculture with just few clicks. More ever the application will reduce the
field work of farmers by providing the control to water plants.

 

 

 

II.               
Need Of New Technology

The
two basic  problems faced by the farmers
are:

1)      
The new technologies that are
useful for effective farming are not known by the today’s farmers.

2)      
As the weather conditions are
disturbed in most of the countries in the world and there is a limitation of water
resources, there is an acute need of using water efficiently.

To
dealt with the above problem, a system is proposed, Smart Framing using
Arduino. According to this system there will be information hub from which
farmers will get information about latest technology in agriculture field and
farmers will be updated with new technologies in the field of agriculture.
Apart from this there will be automated watering system which will reduce the
burden of farmers and also it will use the limited supply of water efficiently.

Closed Loop System

In
a closed Loop systems, the farmer can make a general control strategy for
watering system using Arduino. Once the general strategy is made, the control
system will work by making detailed decisions on when to apply water and how
much the quantity of water to be applied. This type of system requires feedback
from the sensors as shown in fig 2. Farming activities and decisions regarding
farming are made using the data taken from sensors. In this type of system, the
feedback and control of the systems are done regularly. Closed loop controllers
require data of environmental parameters like level of moisture soil,
temperature, speed of wind etc.

 

 

III.            
Components Used

 

A.      
Arduino

This
is an open source prototyping policy built on user friendly hardware and
software which can be modified as per the requirements of the user 1. Arduino
UNO board consisting of microcontroller ATmega328P is used to control motors
using controller. The programming of Arduino board is done in such a way that
it will sense the moisture level in the soil and notifies the farmer 8.

 

B.      
Hygrometer
Sensor

Hygrometer
sensor is used to detect the content of moisture level in the soil. When the
level of moisture content falls below a threshold level, then the soil
hygrometer detection outputs a high level and vice versa. When this sensor is
integrated with Arduino based module the automatic watering plant system is
formed in which no human supervision is needed for watering of crops.

 

C.     
Ethernet Shield

This
is used to connect the Arduino with the internet easily. This enables the
Arduino to send and receive data from anywhere in the world with an internet
connection required which can be used for real time application.

 

 

D.     
Arduino
Controller

To
control the direction and speed of motor using Arduino we used Arduino Controller,
this also allows an additional motor to be connected with an external power
supply up to 12V.

 

E.      
Servo Motor

When
we integrate the servo motor with a sensor it allows to control the angular
position. The mechanism involved in servo motor removes the error in the system
using negative feedback and hence improves the performance of the system.

 

 

F.      
An application
running on android phone

Android
is an open source operating system which is mostly used in smart phones now a
days. In most of the countries in the world, almost 70% of mobile phone users
are using android as it si user friendly. Android apps are designed and
developed using tools like Android studio, Eclipse, Visual Studio etc.

 

IV.            
Methodology

There
are two major functional units for its working i.e. soil hygrometer sensor and
servo motor (water pump). The work of soil hygrometer sensor is to check the
level of moisture in the soil and then send a signal to the Arduino UNO if
watering is required or not. The hardware block diagram representation of the
system is as shown below in fig.1.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.1. Block Diagram of hardware representation

 

In
this paper  the Arduino controller is
used to control the motor. Arduino and android application will communicate
with each other via internet.

The
working of plant watering system is shown in the fig.2 in the form of a
flowchart. The detailed steps are as given:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.2 Flowchart for automated watering system using
feedback

 

1.Soil
hygrometer sensor will be deployed inside the soil. It will check the level of
moisture of the soil and send the signal to Arduino UNO. Arduino will compare
the level of moisture with the database value for a particular plant from the
information hub and accordingly it will do the watering for the particular
plant or seed.

2.
If the moisture level is below the threshold value for that particular plant, a
notification for watering a plant will be sent to farmer through Arduino
Ethernet shield by Arduino UNO.

3.
Farmers will be having two option whether they want watering of plant
automatically or they will do it manually.

4.
Depending on the option selected by the farmer, appropriate actions will be
carried out by the Arduino UNO. If farmer selects automatic option, Arduino UNO
will trigger the servo motor via Arduino controller to turn ON and supply the
water to the particular plant. When the moisture level reached at the desired a
level the system will stops on its own and servo motor is turned OFF. If the
farmer selects manual mode, Arduino UNO will trigger the servo motor to turn ON
and the time will be decided by the farmer that when to stop the motor.

 

An
android application overall mechanism which will control watering system and
will assist farmers to obtain the required information for the particular plant
is described in figure 3 and 4.

In
figure no.3 a no. of steps has been explained for farmers that how they have to
sign up on an android app. Once the farmer has successfully signed up, his/her
profile will be created and he will be able to see the information’s regarding
agriculture through news feed page. News feed page will contain weather
information and many other useful information. The working of the system after
successful login is as shown in figure no.4.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.3 Steps for Sign Up to Android Application

 

A detailed information’s regarding crops such as cost of the seeds,
moisture level of soil required, pesticides and fertilizers to be used, all
these will be stored in a database. An android application will be connected to
the database which can be used as a source of data using regression algorithm
along with key points like crop, soil type, area, seeds, weather conditions.

In addition to all these the farmers can share their views
regarding the methods they have used in farming and the technologies they are
using with the help of android application. Therefore if one can see that this
application will be very helpful to the farmers in seeking information with
just few clicks.

Using the empirical data the android application will also predict
the weather conditions for the coming days. To give the weather conditions it
will consider the following steps; it will consider the last week’s temperature
along with the temperature value of the same dates of last four years and
calculate the average value which will be the best predicted temperature value.
It will also pressure , wind speed, humidity, clouds. These data or information
will better help the farmer to plan his action during the agricultural cycle
like taking precautionary measures over a predicted hailstorm and hence
safeguard his interest.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.4 Working of Android Application

 

 

 

 

 

V.                 
Conclusion And
Future Work

 

The essential part of farming is watering which is an indispensable
cultural practice making this part automated will lessen the burden of farmers.
In addition to this the android application will make the lifestyle of farmers
smarter and faster. Making water system automated will make the limited use of
available water efficiently. Also the availability of different information’s
regarding agriculture directly in the hand of farmer through the use of app
without making him independent on his friend, neighbors or waiting for a SMS
from the mKisan portal schemes, this will make the farmer independent and can
take the instant decision. This will not only make the productivity higher but
will also enhance the farmer life reducing stress and also making them curious
to learn the new technologies which is 
essential in this era of Digital revolution. This will also help to
increase the GDP of the country. 

There is also future scope in this field by making some improvement
plan which can be incorporated in this app by giving more accurate predictions
about weather conditions. As different sensors are used, all the information’s
can be recorded on the servers. Future work can also be done to build a
commercial sellable product with possible addition features like harvesting, a
video camera sending live video feed to the farmer’s cell phone via an IP
camera.