3.1. control for both males and females (p

3.1. Development time

The development time of O.
pityocampae did not significantly differ by gender (t=-1.78; df=54; p=0.8),
and mean egg-to-adult (total)
development time of O. pityocampae was
11.68±0.07 and 11.84±0.06
days for male and female parasitoids,
respectively. Mean egg, larval, and pupal development time of O. pityocampae
were 1.94±0.01, 3.42±0.03, and 7.11±0.03, respectively.

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3.2. Longevity of O.

The effect of food on longevity of
female O. pityocampae (F=56.32, df=3, p
0.05 Table 1). When exposed to the honey and B. signatum egg, the mean
longevity of O. pityocampae females was estimated to be 19.81 days
(Table 1). The longevity of both male and female O. pityocampae was
significantly affected by the feeding regime (F=4.41, df=1, p 0.05, Table 1).


3.3. Parasitism percentage of O. pityocampae

Parasitism is very low in the
first 24 hours of parasitoid life span and parasitizing B. signatum eggs (7.27±2.54 eggs) at low levels. Understanding the efficient age of parasitoids is very
important to obtain effective and successful parasitism in field release
programs as well as for mass production. The maximum number of eggs deposited by
one O. pityocampae female was
observed on the 3rd (39.27±0.01
eggs) days of its adult life span. The egg laying period
of O. pityocampae lasted 14.45±0.68 days (Fig.
1). A female O. pityocampae lays 122.45±4.30 eggs in its whole life time. The average
adult longevity was 9.09±0.74 and
19.81±0.62 days for females and males, respectively.


3.4. Sex ratio of O.

Sex ratio of O. pityocampae on B. signatum eggs in the laboratory
is shown in Fig. 2. The sex ratio (female: male) of O.
pityocampae is 4.2:1.


4. Discussion

4.1. Development time

According to many researchers,
there are different types of development times
in Ooencyrtus species at different temperatures and in different hosts.
For example, Rahim et al. (20) studied the effect of temperature on the development time of O. papilionis.
Ashmead showed that in this parasitoid no development of
immatures occurs if the temperature is over 32.5°C. According to the survey by
Muesebeck and Dohanian (18) in both O. kuvanae and O. anasae development from egg to adult takes
about 18-35 days, depending on temperature. Viggiani (27), during
investigations on O. gonoceri Viggiani which is the parasitoid of Gonocerus
acuteangulatus Goeze, showed thta the preimmaginal development takes place in 8-12 days at 23-26°C
and at 50-70% of R.H. Maple (10) has also reviewed the biology of O. johnsoni
Howard on Murgantia histrionica Hahn eggs. Based on his results, the development of immatures is approximately 17
days. Masutti (11) reported that in O. pityocampae on Thaumetopoea
pityocampa Denis & Schiffermuller eggs the development from egg to adult takes
about 22-25 days. These apparent contrasting results could be due to using
different hosts. Our results showed that short development
period of O. pityocampae on B. signatum eggs can be an important
feature for mass rearing in the biological control of the pest.


4.2. Longevity of O.

The longevity of wasps fed with
honey and water and just honey was significantly higher than water-fed wasps
for both males and females (p