1.INTRODUCTION for an integrated approach. According to the results

1.INTRODUCTION

            Wastes
that do not fall into the concept of hazardous and harmful waste from public
places such as houses, gardens, parks and picnic areas, which do not form waste
with industrial contents, are generally referred to as domestic waste. Daily
routine activities are classified into hazardous and harmful waste class which
can occur in the aftermath house environment. The amount of waste per capita in
our country is 0.6 kg per day, and 1 kg of domestic solid waste is produced on
average. According to this, it is estimated that about 27,000 tons of domestic
solid waste per year is produced between 55,000 to 60,000 tons per day on
average.1
Turkey Statistical Institute (TSI) in Turkey in 2008, according to data
collected from the municipal waste collection and transport about 25 million
tons of waste;

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·        
41.3% were in the
municipal waste,

·        
9.3% were in the
metropolitan municipality garbage,

·        
1.4% in other municipal
garbage,

·        
1% was burned openly,

·        
0.4% were buried,

·        
0.2% was poured by duck
and lake,

·        
44.9% of them are in
regular storage areas,

·        
1,1% were taken to
composting plants and processed in appropriate processes.

            Municipal
wastes are generally classified as non-hazardous and consist of wastes
originating from houses or content or structurally similar.Economic growth in
the industrial area in Turkey; urbanization, population growth, waste types,
need mass both volume instead of establishing a separate waste management
system for each type of waste resulting increase in the value of all the waste
into space reveals the need for an integrated approach. According to the
results of the study on the determination of the domestic waste content in the
scope of the Solid Waste Master Plan Project (KAAP) carried out in 2006, 34% of
the domestic wastes are organic wastes from the kitchen, about 22% are
non-combustible materials, 19% while the remaining 25% constitutes packaging
waste. These results also show the contribution that municipal wastes will
provide to the economy of the country as a result of decomposing and recycling
or returning before domestic waste is sent to collection centers.

 

2.DOMEST?C WASTE AND
ENV?RONMENTAL DAMAGE

            2.1.Effects On Air

            Household
wastes have various damages to economic, environmental and human health.2Non-removable
and non-stored wastes cause environmental pollution to a considerable extent,
affecting public health in a negative way. After the rains, the waters leaking
from the garbage fields cause the groundwater to pollute. There are odor
problems in garbage poured areas. In case of throwing the waste pills into
trash, soil, seas, rivers and sewers, or burning them, the heavy metals they
contain may pollute the environment.3Waste
oils; reduces oxygen in water. Microorganisms that are fed with waste oil in
water are formed, and these microorganisms reach carcinogenic people through
eating fish and other living things. Frying oils; when it is poured into the
sea, lakes and rivers, it prevents the oxygen transfer from air to water by
covering the surface of the water, causing the death of fishes and other living
things. When the frying oil is poured into the sink, it adheres to the drain
system, causing the wastes in the sewage pipe to stick to the pipe wall,
causing the pipe to become narrowed and the sewer system to become unusable
over time. Used frying oils cause pollution of groundwater, which is an
important source of drinking water.

            Finished
Tires; mosquitoes and rats, as well as the spread of epidemic diseases. These
masses cause fires that can not be extinguished for days. These fires spread
tons of toxic gases such as DIOXIN-FURAN in a black cloud in the atmosphere.
These atmospheric pollutants cause direct pollution of human health as well as
contamination of nearby land and water. In developing societies, there is a right
ratio between consumption habits of people and the quantity and composition of
consumer goods solid wastes. Particularly in recent years, with the incidents
of migration from the villages to the cities, the production in our country has
decreased and the consumer society has begun to become. In recent years,
together with the developing packaging industry, the production of materials
which enables the purchase of products in very small quantities and which will
ensure the long-term storage of the received products has begun.

            As
a result of the good disposal of these packages, environmental pollution
occurs, which in turn has an effect on the minus both biologically and
economically. A paper handkerchief that has been left to the nature can be
destroyed in 3 months, an apple garbage in 6 months, a glass bottle in 4000
years. For this reason, the recovery of these packages is very important.
Because of the recycling of these wastes, natural resources are protected and
at the same time energy saving is provided. However, the amount of waste in the
environment starts to decrease and it means investment for the future and
economically.

3. DEF?N?T?ON OF
RECYCL?NG

            3.1.Purpose of Recycling

            Recycling
is the recycling of wastes that can be reevaluated through various physical and
chemical processes to be converted into secondary raw material and included in
the production process. It can be defined as recycling waste materials that are
not used in any way by another definition, and recycling them as raw materials
through various recycling methods. The purpose of recycling; to prevent the
unnecessary use of resources and to reduce the amount of waste garbage together
with the separation of waste at the source. Recycling and reuse of materials
such as iron, steel, copper, lead, paper, plastic, rubber, glass, electronic
waste will prevent the depletion of natural resources. This situation; it will
also reduce the amount of foreign exchange paid to imported scrap material to
meet the needs of countries, and will save a great deal of the energy used.

            3.2.Proportions and Availability of Domestic Waste

            4Use
of recycled paper in paper manufacture can be avoided by reducing air pollution
by 74-94%, water pollution by 35%, water use by 45%, and the addition of one
ton of waste paper to paper pulp. Energy saving is achieved because the number
of industrial processes in recycled material decreases. In the recycling of
metal beverage boxes, the metal is directly melted and converted into a new
product. In this way, neither the mineral ore used for production nor the
processes applied for the purification of the mine are required. In this way an
energy saving of 96% can be achieved by recycling an aluminum can. Similarly,
the energy required to recycle the paper separated in solid wastes is up to 50%
of that required for normal operations. In the same way, glass and plastic
waste can be recycled in a considerable amount of energy saving. Recycling is a
productive economic investment in the long run. Reductions in crude oil and
rapid depletion of natural resources can lead to economic problems, and at this
point recycling will be positive on the economy. It will provide new business
opportunities and provide future generations with access to natural resources.
On the other hand, as mentioned above, it will also be possible to
significantly reduce environmental pollution by reducing the amount of solid
wastes to be disposed of for recycling purposes. The reduction of the amount of
solid waste and volume is a great advantage especially for countries where
there is not enough space to regularly dispose of solid waste. When these
recyclable wastes are mixed with normal garbage, the secondary materials
produced from these materials are of much lower quality and may cause problems
in the cleaning process. Therefore, the most important step of the recycling
process is the separation at the source and the separate collection.

            3.3.Recyclable Wastes,Steps and Benefits

            Recycling requires different methods for each
material.Waste aluminum is chopped into small particles.These pieces are then
melted in large quarries and cast aluminum is produced. In this case, waste
aluminum becomes almost the same as pure aluminum and can be used in
production. 5With
aluminum recovery, the reduction in energy consumption is 95%, the decrease in
air pollution is 90%, the decrease in water pollution is 97%, the reduction in
the emission of pollutant gas is 99% When a kilogram of aluminum box is
recovered; The use of 8 kg bauxite metal, 4 kg chemical and 14 kW / hr electric
energy is preserved. When one of the aluminum beverage boxes is recovered, the
electricity consumed in 35 hours of a lamp of 100 kW / hour or 30 hours of a TV
is protected. ton is produced from aluminum used aluminum; 1300 kg of bauxite,
15000 liters of coolant, 860 liters of process water, 2000 kg of CO2 and 11 kg
of SO2 emissions.

            Metal packaging wastes collected separately from
domestic wastes are first separated according to the materials in collection
collection facilities. Here, with the help of large magnet systems, aluminum,
steel etc. in the stack. are separated from each other. The collected packaging
waste is pressed for ease of transportation and storage. Thus, the volume is
reduced. As a result of this operation, metal packages are processed. First,
physical grinding is performed. After grinding, it is melted in high-grade
furnaces. Metal blocks are formed by pouring molten mold. These formed metal
blocks are pressed to the desired thickness. It becomes ready to fill after
properly shaping all kinds of packaging such as aerosol, beverage crate, paint
cans.

            The paper is first separated into fibers in water for
the preparation of the paper mud. If necessary, it is subjected to cleaning
process for non-fiber foreign materials. As the ink separator, sodium hydroxide
or sodium carbonate is used. Later, paper fibers are used in the production of
recycled paper. Waste paper can not be recovered continuously. In each
recovery, the length of the fibers is shortened and no new paper can be
produced without the addition of adjuncts to bond the fibers.1 When tons of
used paper are recycled, carbon dioxide, the greenhouse gas, can be disposed of
from the air to 12400 m3. Continuing to produce 12400 m3 oxygen
gas,Conservation of 17 adult trees that provide oxygen for 34 people, saving 32
m3 of water consumed by 3 families per month, saving 1750 liters of fuel-oil
for warming in the winter months and consuming two family members, saving about
-2.4 m3 of garbage storage, 4100 kW / h of electricity can be saved.

            Plastic wastes are first sorted according to their
type and recycled. Recyclable plastic wastes separated by type are broken in
crushing machines and separated into small pieces. Businesses can use these
pieces directly at certain ratios in the production process by mixing them with
the original raw material; It can also be used as a second grade raw material
by melting and re-adding additives. When used plastics are recycled and
recycled, new coats, industrial fibers, work hat, grocery stalls, school and
office parts, golf and tennis equipment, garden furniture corner stones, It is
possible to obtain new plastic products such as pots, benches, car spare parts,
water meter box, buckets, carpet material and drain pipes. The following
products are obtained from PET recycling; carpet bases, sleeping bags, clothing
in the garment, car parts, paint brushes, life saving cushions, bags, mail
boxes, picnic tables, fences, hiking boots, dual compartment buckets, laser
toner cartridges, belts and geotextiles.Plastic Recycling; 1050 recycled
plastics can be made of a seating group for 6 people. If a 2.5 liter plastic
bottle is recycled and used in production, it can save 60 watts of electrical
energy for 6 hours. If a 2 liter beverage bottle is recycled, you can get a
plastic sweater of this material .25 a used plastic swollen jacket can be
produced. A sleeping bag can be made from 35 pieces of 2.5 liter used PET
bottles.

            There are three groups of substances in the
composition of the glass. These are the so-called oxides, melts and stabilizers
which can be formed into glass. The bottles, jars, glass cups, vases and other
glass wastes are collected separately in the collection boxes or at the places
where the waste is generated and these wastes are separated according to their
colors and given to the recycling plants. Here waste and additives are
separated. The glass materials are broken and mixed into the raw material
mixture and poured into melting furnaces. It is also used as broken glass,
concrete admixture and glass asphalt. Camasfalta contains about 30% recycled
glass. At least one of the three glass packages we use is made from recycled
glass. Waste glass bottles and jars are used in glass packaging production. The
energy saved in the recycling of a glass bottle is: 1 hour for a 100 watt bulb,
25 minutes for a computer, 20 minutes for a television, 10 minutes for a
washing machine it is identical.

Benefits of Glass Recycling;

·        
Decrease
in energy consumption 25%

·        
Decrease
in Air Pollution by 20%

·        
Decrease
in mining waste 80%

·        
Decrease
in Water Consumption 50%

·        
Protected
natural resources: sand, soda, lime

            Since the composite packages collected are obtained by
using many materials together, the recycling process also consists of complex
steps. After grinding and separating, the paper and the aluminum / polyethylene
part are separated from each other. The recovered paper can be used in the
production of articles such as tissue paper, toilet paper and corrugated
cardboard by passing through a recycled paper recycling process. The remaining portion
(Aluminum and Polyethylene / or other material) can be used as additional fuel
since the calorific values ??are high in cement factories after the paper part
has been separated. It can also be recycled in the same way for energy
purposes. Another practice is the products produced in our country with the
name of a jacket. Composite packages are crushed and grinded, then compressed
in a press to produce a chipboard-like material. The resulting product is a
water and napkin resistant material that can be used in the construction of
garden furniture.

 

 

 

 

CONCLUISON

            As a result, many useful things are being produced with domestic
household wastes. Countries
that use recycling beneficially have seen many benefits of it. In addition to decreasing
renewable energy resources, the energy produced by these wastes is of economic
importance and will be very useful for human health. Since these wastes are in the process of disappearing in nature,
it is necessary for people to become aware and to give importance to the
recycling.Otherwise,
these wastes left to the nature will cause serious damage all over the world.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Türkiye ?statistik Kurumu (2014)  “2010 ve 2012
Verileriyle Türkiye’de Belediye At?k ?statistikleri” http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=18777

Idaho National Engineering and Enviromental Laboratory
(1997) “Management of  Wastes “Process
and Material That Encapsulates Solid Hazardous Waste

Grady,C.P.(2011).
Biological Wastewater Treatment.Boca Raton.

Amor Balada.(2005)Buffer
Substance From Secondary Raw Material Remagen Kessel

http://www.radikal.com.tr/cevre/copten-ekonomiye-175-milyon-ytl-katki-878556/

http://atiksahasi.com/Evsel-At%C4%B1klar

 

1 Türkiye ?statistik Kurumu (2014) 
“2010
ve 2012 Verileriyle Türkiye’de Belediye At?k ?statistikleri” http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=18777

2 (Laboratory., Energy., Counsel., & Information., 1997)

3 Idaho National Engineering and Enviromental Laboratory (1997) “Management
of  Wastes “Process and Material That Encapsulates Solid Hazardous Waste

4 Grady,C.P.(2011). Biological Wastewater Treatment.Boca
Raton.

 

5 Amor Balada.(2005)Buffer
Substance From Secondary Raw Material Remagen Kessel